LIBERALISM, SOCIALISM AND THE PROGRESSIVE ALLIANCE IN BRITAIN C.1880-1914
BIBLIOGRAPHY
CONTENTS

1. THE ECONOMY
2.
THE LANDED ELITE
3. URBAN GROWTH AND TOWN PLANNING
4.
HOUSING
5.
HEALTH
6.
EDUCATION
7.
CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
8.
LEISURE AND CULTURE
9.
REGION AND LOCALITY
10.
NATIONAL IDENTITY
11.
THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM
12.
SOCIAL CONTROL
13.
RELIGION
14.
POPULAR IMPERIALISM
15.
IMMIGRATION
16.
THE WORKING CLASS
17.
WORKING-CLASS CONSERVATISM
18.
LATE-VICTORIAN CONSERVATISM
19.
TARIFF REFORM AND ‘THE CRISIS OF CONSERVATISM’
20.
GLADSTONIAN LIBERALISM
21.
LIB-LABISM
22.
THE LABOUR ARISTOCRACY
23.
THE LABOUR PROCESS
24.
WOMEN’S WORK
25.
LABOUR LAW
26.
TRADE UNIONISM
27.
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
28.
CRAFT UNIONISM
29.
‘NEW’ UNIONISM
30.
CO-OPERATION
31.
THE REVIVAL OF SOCIALISM
32.
THE FABIAN SOCIETY
33.
THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC FEDERATION
34.
THE INDEPENDENT LABOUR PARTY
35.
THE LABOUR REPRESENTATION COMMITTEE
36.
POVERTY AND POVERTY STUDIES
37.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
38.
THE BOER WAR AND NATIONAL EFFICIENCY
39.
NEW LIBERALISM: IDEOLOGY AND SOCIAL REFORM
40.
THE GLADSTONE-MACDONALD PACT
41.
THE DEFENCE OF FREE TRADE
42.
NEW LIBERAL WELFARE REFORMS
43.
PENIONS
44.
HEALTH INSURANCE
45.
UNEMPLOYMENT
46.
TAXATION, ‘THE PEOPLE’S BUDGET’ AND THE HOUSE OF LORDS
47.
LLOYD GEORGE’S LAND CAMPAIGN
48.
THE POOR LAW, PHILANTHROPY, SELF-HELP
49.
THE PARLIAMENTARY LABOUR PARTY
50.
VOTES FOR WOMEN
51.
HOME RULE FOR IRELAND
52.
SYNDICALISM AND LABOUR UNREST 1911-14
53.
ANTI-SOCIALISM
54.
A CENTRE PARTY?
55.
THE LEFT
56.
THE RADICAL RIGHT
57.
THE COMING OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR
58.
THE DECLINE OF LIBERALISM

ABBREVIATIONS
AES Archives Europeenes de Sociologie
AH Agricultural History
AHR American Historical Review
BH Business History
BHM Bulletin of the History of Medicine
BIHR Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research
BJPS British Journal of Political Science
BJS British Journal of Sociology
BSSLH Bulletin of the Society for the Study of Labour History
CR Contemporary Review
CSSH Comparative Studies in Society and History
EEH Explorations in Economic History
EcHR Economic History Review
EHR English Historical Review
EJ Economic Journal
HE History of Education
HJ Historical Journal
HS Historical Studies
HWJ History Workshop Journal
IHS Irish Historical Studies
IJHS International Journal of the History of Sport
IRSH International Review of Social History
JBS Journal of British Studies
JCH Journal of Contemporary History
JEH Journal of Economic History
JEEH Journal of European Economic History
JHG Journal of Historical Geography
JHS Journal of Historical Sociology
JICH Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History
JLE Journal of Law and Economy
JMH Journal of Modern History
JSH Journal of Social History
JSP Journal of Social Policy
JWH Journal of Women’s History
LH Literature and History
LS Legal Studies
MH Medical History
OEP Oxford Economic Papers
OH Oral History

P&P Past and Present
PA Parliamentary Affairs
PBA Proceedings of the British Academy
SEA Social and Economic Administration
SH Social History
SHM Social History of Medicine
SHR Scottish History Review
SLHJ Scottish Labour History Journal
SP Sociological Papers
SR Sociological Review
TCBH Twentieth Century British History
TH Textile History

VS Victorian Studies
WHR Women’s History Review

REFERENCE
P. & G. Ford A Breviate of Parliamentary Papers 1900-1916: The Foundation of the Welfare State (1957)
M. Stenton & S. Lees (eds.) Who’s Who of British Members of Parliament
J.M. Bellamy & J. Saville (eds.) Dictionary of Labour Biography (1972-)
J.O. Baylen & N.J. Gossman (eds.) Biographical Dictionary of Modern British Radicals Vol.3 1870-1914 (1988)
O. Banks (ed.) Biographical Dictionary of British Feminists 2 vols. (1985, 1990)
F.W.S. Craig British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918 (1974)
F.W.S. Craig British Electoral Facts 1885-1975 (3rd. edn. 1976)
H. Pelling Social Geography of British Elections, 1885-1910 (1967)
Department of Employment British Labour Statistics: Historical Abstract 1886-1968 (1971)
The Dictionary of National Biography [published decade by decade]
A.H. Halsey (ed.) British Social Trends since 1900 (1988)
B.R. Mitchell British Historical Statistics (1988)
Who’s Who

INTRODUCTORY AND GENERAL

I. POLITICAL
D. Read Edwardian England 1901-1915: Society and Politics (1972)
G. Dangerfield The Strange Death of Liberal England (1934)
W. Bagehot The English Constitution (1867)
S. Beer Modern British Politics: A Study of Parties and Pressure Groups (3rd. edn. 1982)
J. Belchem Class, Party and the Political System in Britain 1867-1914 (1990)
W.D. Rubinstein Britain's Century: A Political and Social History 1815-1905 (1998)
J. Davis A History of Britain, 1885-1939 (1999)
J. Cronin The Politics of State Expansion (1990)
R.C.K. Ensor England 1870-1914 (1936)
W.H. Greenleaf The British Political Tradition, Vol.I: The Rise of Collectivism (1984)
E. Halevy A History of the English People in the Nineteenth Century (1927) Vol.V Imperialism and the Rise of Labour (1895-1905) & Vol.VI The Rule of Democracy (1905-1914)
G.H.L. LeMay The Victorian Constitution (1979)
A.L. Lowell The Government of England
R.T. McKenzie British Political Parties (2nd. edn. 1963)
H. Perkin The Rise of Professional Society: England since 1880 (1989)
R. Price Labour in British Society (1986)
M. Pugh The Making of Modern British Politics 1867-1939 (1982; 1993)
M. Pugh State and Society: A Social and Political History of Britain 1870-1997 (2nd. edn. 1999)
A.J. Reid Social Classes and Social Relations in Britain 1850-1914 (1990)
P. Thane The Foundations of the Welfare State (1982)
F.M.L. Thompson The Rise of Respectable Society (1989)

II. ECONOMIC
E.J. Hobsbawm Industry and Empire: An Economic History of Britain since 1750 (1968)
S. Pollard Britain’s Prime and Britain’s Decline: The British Economy 1870-1914

III. SOCIAL
B. Waites ‘The Language and Imagery of Class in Early Twentieth-century England’ LH 4 (1976)
P. Thompson The Edwardians
F. Bedarida A Social History of England, 1851-1975 (1979)
J. Harris Private Lives, Public Spirit: A Social History of Britain 1870-1914 (1993)
P. Johnson (ed.) Twentieth-Century Britain (1994)
W.G. Runciman Relative Deprivation and Social Justice (1966)
F.M.L. Thompson (ed.) The Cambridge Social History of Britain 1750-1950 (1990) Vol.I Regions and Communities; Vol.II People and their Environment; Vol.III Social Agencies and Institutions
M.J. Wiener English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit 1850-1980 (1981)

1. THE ECONOMY
C. Feinstein ‘What Really Happened to Real Wages 1880-1913’ EcHR (1990)
C. Feinstein ‘New Estimates of Average Earnings in the United Kingdom, 1880-1913’ EcHR (1990)
I. Gazeley ‘The Cost of Living for Urban Workers in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain’ EcHR (1989)
A.L. Bowley Wages and Income in the United Kingdom since 1860
A.L. Bowley Changes in the Distribution of National Income 1800-1913
J. Revell Changes in the Social Distribution of Property in Britain during the Twentieth Century
J. Stamp British Incomes and Property
H. Berghoff ‘Public Schools and the Decline fo the British Economy 1870-1914’ P&P (1990)
P.J. Cain & A.G. Hopkins British Imperialism: Innovation and Expansion, 1815-1914 (1993)
P.J. Cain & A.G. Hopkins ‘Gentlemanly Capitalism and British Overseas Expansion II. New Imperialism, 1850-1945’ EcHR 40 (1987)
D. Coates The Question of UK Decline (1994)
D.C. Coleman ‘Gentlemen and Players’ EcHR (1973)
D.C. Coleman & C. Macleod ‘Attitudes to New Techniques: British Business, 1800-1950’ EcHR 39 (1986)
B. Collins & K. Robbins (eds.) British Culture and Economic Decline (1990)
P.L. Cottrell British Overseas Investment in the Nineteenth Century (1975)
M.J. Daunton ‘"Gentlemanly Capitalism" and British Industry, 1820-1914’ P&P (1989)
M. Dinlentass The Decline of Industrial Britain (1992)
B. Elbaum & W. Lazonick (eds.) The Decline of the British Economy (1985)
D. Fieldhouse Economics and Empire, 1830-1914 (1973)
R.C. Floud & D.M. McCloskey (eds.) The Economic History of Britain since 1700 (1981)
E.J. Hobsbawm Industry and Empire: An Economic History of Britain since 1750 (1968)
P. Johnson (ed.) Twentieth-Century Britain (1994)
R. Michie ‘The Finance of Innovation in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain: Possibilities and Constraints’ JEEH 17 (1988)
D. McCloskey ‘Did Victorian Britain Fail?’ EcHR (1970). Reprinted in Enterprise and Trade in Victorian Britain (1981) with comments by Aldcroft, Crafts and Kennedy.
D. McCloskey & L. Sandberg ‘From Damnation to Redemption: Judgements of the Late Victorian Entrepreneur’ EEH 9 (1971). Reprinted in Enterprise and Trade in Victorian Britain (1981).
N. McKendrick ‘"Gentlemen and Players" Revisited: The Gentlemanly Ideal, the Business Ideal, and the Professional Ideal in English Literary Culture’ in N. McKendrick & R.B. Outhwaite (eds.) Business Life and Publicity (1986)
P.K. O’Brien ‘The Costs and Benefits of British Imperialism, 1846-1914’ P&P (1983)
P.L. Payne British Entrepreneurship in the Nineteenth Century (1974)
S. Pollard Britain’s Prime and Britain’s Decline: The British Economy 1870-1914
B. Porter The Lion’s Share: A Short History of British Imperialism 1850-1983 (1983)
W.D. Rubinstein Capitalism, Culture and Decline in Britain, 1750-1990 (1993)
M. Sanderson The Universities and British Industry, 1850-1970 (1972)
J. Tomlinson Public Policy and the Economy since 1900 (1989)
D. Ward ‘The Public Schools and Industry in Britain after 1870’ JCH 2 (1967)
M.J. Wiener English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit 1850-1980 (1981)

2. THE LANDED ELITE
A. Adonis Making Aristocracy Work: The Peerage and the Political System in Britain 1884-1914
W.L. Arnstein ‘The Survival of the Victorian Aristocracy’ in F.C. Jaher (ed.) The Rich, the Well-born and the Powerful: Elites and Upper Classes in History (1973)
J.V. Beckett The Aristocracy in England, 1660-1914 (1986)
D. Cannadine The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy (1990)
H. Clemenson English Country Houses and Landed Estates (1982)
J.M. Lee Social Leaders and Public Persons: A Study of County Government in Cheshire since 1888 (1963)
P.H. Lindert ‘Who Owned Victorian England?’ AH (1987)
A. Offer Property and Politics 1870-1914: Landownership, Law, Ideology and Urban Development in England (1981)
G.D. Phillips The Diehards: Aristocratic Society and Politics in Edwardian England (1979)
R.E. Pumphrey ‘The Introduction of Industrialists into the British Peerage’ AHR (1959)
W.D. Rubinstein ‘Wealth, Elites and the Class Structure of Modern Britain’ P&P (1977)
W.D. Rubinstein Elites and the Wealthy in Modern British History (1988)
D. Spring ‘Land and Politics in Edwardian England’ AH (1984)
F.M.L. Thompson English Landed Society in the Nineteenth Century (1963)
F.M.L. Thompson ‘Life After Death: How Successful Nineteenth-century Businessmen Disposed of their Fortunes’ EcHR (1990)
F.M.L. Thompson ‘England’s Landed Society in the Twentieth Century’ A series of 4 articles TRHS 1990; 1991; 1992; 1993)
W. de Broke The Passing Years (1924)

3. URBAN GROWTH AND TOWN PLANNING
A. Briggs Victorian Cities (1964)
R. Colls & P. Dodd (eds.) Englishness: Politics and Culture, 1880-1920 Essay by A. Hawkins ‘The Discovery of Rural England’
R. Dennis English Industrial Cities of the Nineteenth Century (1984)
D. Friedlander ‘The Spread of Urbanization in England and Wales 1851-1951’ PS 24 (1970)
C.M. Law ‘The Growth of the Urban Population in England and Wales, 1801-1911’ TIBG 41 (1967)
R.J. Morris & R. Rodger (eds.) The Victorian City, 1820-1914 (1993)
R.E. Pahl (ed.) Readings in Urban Sociology (1969)
J. Saville Rural Depopulation in England and Wales, 1851-1951 (1957)
A. Sutcliffe Towards the Planned City (1981)
A. Sutcliffe ‘In Search of the Urban Variable: Britain in the Later Nineteenth Century’ in P. Fraser & A. Sutcliffe (eds.) The Pursuit of Urban History (1983)
P.J. Waller Town, City and Nation: England, 1850-1914 (1983)

4. HOUSING
J. Burnett A Social History of Housing, 1815-1970 (1978)
A.S. Wohl The Eternal Slum
J. Yelling Slums and Slum Clearance in Victorian London (1986)
A.S. Wohl ‘The Bitter Cry of Outcast London’ IRSH (1968)
A.S. Wohl ‘Octavia Hill and the Housing of the London Poor’ JBS 10 (1971)
E. Gaudie Cruel Habitations
J. Tarn Five Per Cent Philanthropy
S. Chapman (ed.) The History of Working-class Housing
M.J. Daunton House and Home in the Victorian City: Working-Class Housing, 1850-1914 (1984)
M.J. Daunton A Property-Owning Democracy? (1987)
D. Englander Landlord and Tenant in Urban Britain, 1838-1918 (1983)
R. Rodger Housing in Urban Britain 1780-1914 (1989)
P. Wilding ‘Towards Exchequer Subsidies for Housing 1906-1914’ SEA 4 (1982)
F.M.L. Thompson (ed.) The Rise of Suburbia (1982)
A. Offer Property and Politics 1870-1914 (1981)
A. Marshall ‘The Housing of the London Poor’ CR 45 (1984)

5. HEALTH
J. Burnett Plenty and Want: A Social History of Diet in England from 1815 to the Present Day (1966)
B.H. Harrison Drink and the Victorians (1971)
H.E. Jones Health and Society since 1900 (1994)
T. McKeown Medicine in Modern Society (1965)
S. Szreter Fertility, Class and Gender in Britain, 1860-1940 (1996)
B. Abel Smith The Hospitals 1800-1948
J. Brand Doctors and the State 1870-1912
R. Macleod ‘The Frustration of State Medicine 1880-99’ MH 11 (1967)
B.B. Gilbert ‘Health and Politics: The British Physical Deterioration Report of 1914’ BHM (1965)
S. & B. Webb The State and the Doctor
F.B. Smith The People’s Health, 1830-1910 (1979)
J.M. Winter ‘The Decline of Mortality in Britain, 1870-1950’ in T. Barker & M. Drake (eds.) Population and Society in Britain, 1850-1980 (1982)
A.S. Wohl Endangered Lives: Public Health in Victorian Britain (1983)
L. Bryder Beyond the Magic Mountain: A Social History of Tuberculosis (1988)
D. Dwork War Is Good for Babies and Other Young Children: A History of the Infant Welfare Movement 1898-1918
J. Donnison Midwives and Medical Men: A History of Inter-professional Rivalries and Women’s Rights
J. Lewis The Politics of Motherhood (1980)
A. Davin ‘Imperialism and Motherhood’ HWJ (1978)
H.G. Simmons ‘Explaining Social Policy: The English Mental Deficiency Act of 1913’ JSH 2 (1978)

6. EDUCATION
R. Barker Education and Politics 1900-1951
B. Simon Education and the Labour Movement 1870-1920
D.K. Muller, F. Ringer & B. Simon (eds.) The Rise of the Modern Educational System (1987)
G. Sherington English Education, Social Change and War, 1911-1920 (1981) chs.1 & 2
G.A.N. Lowndes The Silent Social Revolution (1937) chs.1-6
M. Sanderson Educational Opportunity and Social Change (1987) ch.2
D.R. Pugh ‘English Nonconformity, Education and Passive Resistance, 1903-1906’ HE 19 (1990)
N.D. Daglish ‘Lloyd George’s Education Bill? Planning the 1906 Education Bill’ HE 23 (1994)
A. Turnbull ‘Learning Her Womanly Work: The Elementary School Curriculum, 1870-1914’ in F. Hunt (ed.) Lessons for Life (1987)
D.E. St.John ‘Educate or Domesticate? Early Twentieth-century Pressures on Older Girls in Elementary Schools’ WHR 3 (1994)
M.A. Cruickshank Church and State in English Education: 1870 to the Present Day (1963)
E.J.T. Brennan Education for National Efficiency
W.H. Armytage The German Influence on English Education
B.M. Allen Sir Robert Morant: A Great Public Servant
T.W. Bamford The Rise of the Public Schools (1967)
L. Goldman Dons and Workers: Oxford and Adult Education since 1850 (1995)
S. Humphries Hooligans or Rebels: An Oral History of Working-Class Childhood and Youth 1889-1939 (1981)
J.S. Hurt Elementary Schooling and the Working Classes, 1860-1918 (1979)
O. Banks Parity and Prestige in English Secondary Education
J.A. Mangan Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School (1986)
J. Purvis A History of Women’s Education in England (1991)
D. Reeder Urban Education in the Nineteenth Century (1977) ‘Predicaments of City Children: Late-Victorian and Edwardian Perspectives on Education and Urban Society’
W.D. Rubinstein ‘Education and the Social Origins of British Elites, 1880-1970’ P&P 112 (1980)
M. Sanderson The Missing Stratum: Technical Education in England 1900-1990 (1994)
D. Wardle English Popular Education, 1870-1975 (2nd. edn. 1976)

7. CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
M. Anderson ‘The Emergence of the Modern Life Cycle in Britain’ SH (1985)
R.A. Bray Boy Labour and Apprenticeship (1911)
J. Burnett (ed.) Destiny Obscure: Autobiographies of Childhood, Education and Family from the 1820s to the 1920s (1984)
H. Cunningham Children of the Poor: Representations of Childhood since the Seventeenth Century (1991) chs.7 & 8
J. Davis Youth and the Condition of Britain (1990) ch.3
C. Dyhouse Girls Growing Up in Late-Victorian and Edwardian England (1981)
A.J. Freeman (ed.) Boy Life and Labour (1914)
J. Gillis ‘The Evolution of Juvenile Delinquency in England, 1890-1914’ P&P (1975)
H. Hendrick Images of Youth: Age, Class and the Male Youth Problem (1990). Also History of Education (1980)
H. Hendrick Child Welfare in England 1872-1989 (1994)
J. Lewis The Politics of Motherhood (1980)
D. Dwork War Is Good for Babies and Other Young Children: A History of the Infant Welfare Movement 1898-1918
S. Humphries Hooligans or Rebels? An Oral History of Working-Class Childhood and Youth 1889-1939 (1981)
G. Pearson Hooligan: A History of Respectable Fears
D. Reeder Urban Education in the Nineteenth Century (1977) ‘Predicaments of City Children: Late-Victorian and Edwardian Perspectives on Education and Urban Society’
R. Roberts A Ragged Schooling: Growing Up in the Classic Slum (1976)
J. Springhall Coming of Age: Adolescence in Britain 1860-1960 (1986)
J. Springhall Youth, Empire and Society: British Youth Movements, 1883-1940 (1977)
R.H. Tawney ‘The Economics of Boy Labour’ in J.H. Whitehouse (ed.) Problems of Boy Life (1912)
E.J. Urwick (ed.) Studies of Boy Labour (1904)
J. Walvin A Child’s World: A Social History of English Childhood 1800-1914 (1982)
A. Warren ‘Sir Robert Baden-Powell, the Scout Movement and Citizen Training in Great Britain 1900-1920’ EHR (1986)

8. LEISURE AND CULTURE
P. Bailey Leisure and Class in Victorian England: Rational Recreation and the Contest for Control c.1830-85 (1978)
Lady F. Bell At the Works (1907) chs. 6,10
R.A. Cage (ed.) The Working Class in Glasgow (1987) E. King on popular culture
E. Dunning (ed.) The Sociology of Sport: A Selection of Readings (1971)
N. Fishwick English Football and Society, 1910-1950 (1989)
B.H. Harrison ‘Pubs’ in H.J. Dyos & M. Wolff (eds.) The Victorian City Vol.I (1973)
B.H. Harrison Drink and the Victorians (1971)
R. Holt Sport and the British: A Modern History (1989)
Korr ‘West Ham and the Beginnings of Professional Football in the East End’ JCH (1978)
J.A. Mangan (ed.) Pleasure, Profits and Proselytism
A. Mason (ed.) Sport in Britain: A Social History (1989)
A. Mason Association Football and English Society, 1863-1915 (1980)
R.I. McKibbin The Ideologies of Class: Social Relations in Britain 1880-1950 (1990) ‘Working-class Gambling in Britain’ & ‘Work and Hobbies in Britain, 1880-1950’
H.E. Meller Leisure and the Changing City, 1870-1914 (1976)
S. Parker Leisure and Work chs.1 & 2
R. Price ‘The Workingmen’s Club Movement’ VS (1971)
D. Russell on the localisation of sport IJHS 5 (1988)
S. Shipley ‘Tom Causer of Bermondsey’ HWJ (1983)
F.M.L. Thompson The Rise of Respectable Society (1988) pp.272-306
W. Vamplew The Turf (1976)
W. Vamplew Pay Up and Play the Game: Professional Sport in Britain, 1875-1941 (1988)
M. Vicinus The Industrial Muse: A Study of Nineteenth-Century British Working-Class Literature (1974)
D. Vincent Literacy and Popular Culture in England 1750-1914 (1990)
J. Walvin Leisure and Society 1830-1950 (1978)
R. Williams Culture and Society, 1780-1950 (1958)
S. & E. Yeo (eds.) Popular Culture and Class Conflict

9. REGION AND LOCALITY
H. Berrington ‘Centre-Periphery Conflict in British Politics’ in V. Meny & V. Wright (eds.) Centre-Periphery Relations in Western Europe (1985)
A. Briggs Victorian Cities (1964)
J. Bulpitt Territory and Power in the United Kingdom (1983)
D. Cannadine Lords and Landlords: The Aristocracy and the Towns (1980)
P.F. Clarke Lancashire and the New Liberalism (1971)
R. Dennis English Industrial Cities of the Nineteenth Century (1984)
D. Fraser Urban Politics in Victorian England (1976)
J. Garrard Leadership and Power in Victorian Industrial Towns, 1830-1880 (1983)
E.P. Hennock Fit and Proper Persons: Ideal and Reality in Nineteenth Century Urban Government (1973)
T. Nairn The Break-up of Britain (1977)
K. Robbins ‘Core and Periphery in Modern British History’ PBA (1984)
W.D. Rubinstein ‘Wealth, Elites and the Class Structure of Modern Britain’ P&P (1977)
R.H. Trainor ‘Urban Elites in Victorian Britain’ Urban History Yearbook (1985)
R.H. Trainor Black Country Elites: The Exercise of Authority in an Industrialized Area 1830-1900 (1993)
J. Davis Reforming London: The London Government Problem, 1855-1900 (1988)
A. Saint (ed.) Politics and the People of London (1989)
P.J. Waller Town, City and Nation: England, 1850-1914 (1983)
D. Urwin ‘Territorial Structures and Political Development in the United Kingdom’ in S. Rokkan & D. Urwin (eds.) The Politics of Territorial Identity (1982)

10. NATIONAL IDENTITY
J. Burrow A Liberal Descent: Victorian Historians and the English Past (1981)
D. Cannadine G.M. Trevelyan: A Life in History (1992)
V. Chancellor History for their Masters: Opinion in the English History Textbook, 1800-1914 (1970)
S. Collini, D. Winch & J. Burrow That Noble Science of Politics (1983)
C. Hill Puritanism and Revolution (1958) ‘The Norman Yoke’
E.J. Hobsbawm & T.O. Ranger (eds.) The Invention of Tradition (1983)
K.O. Morgan The Rebirth of a Nation: Wales 1880-1980 (1981)
J. Stapleton Englishness and the Study of Politics: The Social and Political Thought of Ernest Barker (1994)
F.M. Turner The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981)

11. THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM
D.W. Bebbington ‘Nonconformity and Electoral Sociology 1867-1918’ HJ 27 (1984)
N. Blewett ‘The Franchise in the United Kingdom 1885-1918’ P&P (1965)
M.E.J. Chadwick ‘The Role of Redistribution in the Making of the Third Reform Act’ HJ (1976)
P.F. Clarke ‘Electoral Sociology of Modern Britain’ History (1972)
D.H. Close ‘The Collapse of Resistance to Democracy: Conservatives, Adult Suffrage and Second Chamber Reform, 1911-1918’ HJ (1977)
G.W. Cox ‘The Development of a Party-Oriented Electorate in England 1832-1918’ BJPS (1986)
J. Davis ‘Slums and the Vote 1867-1900’ BIHR 44 (1991)
J.P.D. Dunbabin ‘British General Elections in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: A Regional Approach’ EHR (1980)
J. Hart Proportional Representation: Critics of the British Electoral System, 1820-1945 (1992)
M.W. Hart ‘The Liberals, the War and the Franchise’ EHR (1982)
M. Kinnear The British Voter (2nd. edn. 1981)
J. Lawrence & M. Taylor (eds.) Party, State and Society: Electoral Behaviour in Modern Britain (1996)
B.K. Lucas The English Local Government Franchise (1952)
H.C.G. Matthew, R.I. McKibbin & J.A. Kay ‘The Franchise Factor in the Rise of the Labour Party’ EHR (1976). Also in R.I. McKibbin The Ideologies of Class (1990).
H.C.G. Matthew ‘Rhetoric and Politics in Britain, 1860-1950’ in P.J. Waller (ed.) Politics and Social Change in Modern Britain (1987)
M. Pinto-Duschinksy British Political Finance 1830-1980 (1981)
M. Pugh The Evolution of the British Electoral System 1832-1987 (1988)
M. Pugh Electoral Reform in War and Peace 1906-1918 (1978)
M. Pugh ‘Political Parties and the Campaign for Proportional Representation, 1905-1914’ PA (1980)
D. Tanner ‘The Parliamentary Electoral System, the "Fourth" Reform Act and the Rise of Labour in England and Wales’ BIHR (1984)
K.D. Wald Crosses on the Ballot: Patterns of British Voter Alignment since 1885 (1983)
H. Pelling Social Geography of British Elections, 1885-1910 (1967)

12. SOCIAL CONTROL
G. Stedman Jones ‘Class Expression versus Social Control? A Critique of Recent Trends in the Social History of "Leisure"’ HWJ (1977). Also in his Languages of Class.
F.M.L. Thompson ‘Social Control in Victorian Britain’ EcHR 34 (1981)

13. RELIGION
D.W. Bebbington The Nonconformist Conscience: Chapel and Politics 1870-1914 (1982)
S. Bruce (ed.) Religion and Modernization: Sociologists and Historians Debate the Secularization Thesis (1992)
S. Budd Varieties of Unbelief: Atheists and Agnostics in English Society (1977)
J. Cox The English Churches in a Secular Society: Lambeth 1870-1930 (1982)
R. Currie, A.D. Gilbert and L. Horsley Churches and Churchgoers: Patterns of Church Growth in Great Britain since 1700 (1977)
A.D. Gilbert The Making of Post-Christian Britain (1980)
K.S. Inglis ‘English Nonconformity and Social Reform 1880-1900’ P&P 13
S. Koss Nonconformity in Modern British Politics (1975)
H. McLeod Religion and the Working Class in Nineteenth Century Britain (1984)
H. McLeod ‘New Perspectives of Victorian Working-Class Religion’ OH (1986)
H. McLeod ‘White Collar Values and the Role of Religion’ in G. Crossick (ed.) The Lower Middle Class in Britain 1870-1914
R. Moore Pitmen, Preachers and Politics
H. Pelling Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain (1968) ch.2 ‘Popular Attitudes to Religion’
W.S.F. Pickering ‘The Persistence of Rites of Passage’ BJS (1974)
S. Williams ‘Urban Popular Religion and the Rites of Passage’ in H. McLeod (ed.) European Religion in the Age of Great Cities 1830-1930 (1995)
J. Wolffe God and Greater Britain: Religion and National Life in Britain and Ireland 1843-1945 (1994)

14. POPULAR IMPERIALISM
Sir C. Dilke Greater Britain (1868)
J.M. Mackenzie Propaganda and Empire: The Manipulation of British Public Opinion, 1880-1960 (1984)
T. Pakenham The Boer War (1979)
H. Pelling Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain (1968) ch.5 ‘British Labour and British Imperialism’
R.N. Price ‘Society, Status and Jingoism: The Social Roots of Lower Middle Class Patriotism, 1870-1900’ in G. Crossick (ed.) The Lower Middle Class in Britain 1870-1914 (1977)
B. Semmel Imperialism and Social Reform (1960)

15. IMMIGRATION
D. Feldman Englishmen and Jews: Social Relations and Political Culture 1840-1914 (1994)
S. Fielding Class and Ethnicity: Irish Catholics in England 1880-1939 (1993)
R.F. Foster Paddy and Mr. Punch (1993) ch.9
B. Gainer The Alien Invasion: The Origins of the Aliens Act of 1905 (1972)
C. Holmes John Bull’s Island: Immigration and British Society 1871-1971 (1988)
C. Holmes Anti-Semitism in British Society, 1876-1939 (1979)
T. Kusner & K. Lunn (eds.) Traditions of Intolerance: Historical Perspectives on Fascism and Race Discourse in Britain (1989)
V.D. Lipman A History of the Jews in England since 1858 (1990)
P. Panayi Immigration, Ethnicity and Racism in Britain, 1815-1945 (1994)
P. Panayi Racial Violence in Britain, 1840-1950 (1993)
H. Pollins The Economic History of the Jews in England (1982)
R. Swift & S. Gilley (eds.) The Irish in Britain, 1815-1939 (1989)
P.J. Waller Democracy and Sectarianism: A Political and Social History of Liverpool, 1868-1939 (1981)
J. Walvin Passage to Britain: Immigration in British History and Politics (1984)

16. THE WORKING CLASS
J. Benson The Working Class in Britain, 1850-1939 (1989)
D. Kynaston King Labour: The British Working Class 1850-1914 (1976)
P. Thompson The Edwardians
E.H. Hunt British Labour History 1815-1914
P. Johnson ‘Credit and Thrift and the British Working Class 1870-1939’ in J.M. Winter (ed.) The Working Class in Modern British History (1985)
P. Johnson Saving and Spending (1985)
P. Johnson ‘Class Law in Victorian England’ P&P (1993)
P. Joyce Visions of the People: Industrial England and the Question of Class 1848-1914 (1991)
P. Joyce ‘The End of Social History?’ SH (1995)
N. Kirk ‘In Defence of Class: A Critique of Recent Revisionist Writing upon the Nineteenth-century English Working Class’ IRSH 32 (1987)
N. Kirk ‘History, Language, Ideas and Posmodernism: A Materialist View’ SH (1994)
N. Kirk (ed.) Social Classes and Marxism (1996) ch,3 Kirk ‘Class and the "Linguistic Turn" in Chartist and Post-Chartist Historiography’
R.I. McKibbin The Ideologies of Class: Social Relations in Britain 1880-1950 (1990)
S. Meacham A Life Apart: The English Working Class 1890-1914 (1977)
A.J. Reid Social Classes and Social Relations in Britain 1850-1914 (1990)
P. Stearns Lives of Labour (1975)
P. Thane ‘The Working Class and State Welfare in Britain 1880-1914’ HJ (1984)
F.M.L. Thompson The Rise of Respectable Society (1989)
M. Vicinus The Industrial Muse: A Study of Nineteenth-Century British Working-Class Literature (1974)
D. Vincent Bread, Knowledge and Freedom (1980)
D. Vincent Literacy and Popular Culture in England 1750-1914 (1990)
A. Williams Life in a Railway Factory
T. Wright Our New Masters (1873/repr. 1969) ‘The Composition of the Working Classes’
B. Waites ‘The Language and Imagery of Class in Early Twentieth-century England’ LH 4 (1976)

17. WORKING-CLASS CONSERVATISM
P. Joyce Work, Society and Politics (1980) chs.6-9
A.J. Lee ‘Conservatism, Traditionalism and the British Working Class, 1880-1918’ in D. Martin & D. Rubinstein (eds.) Ideology and the Labour Movement
R.T. McKenzie & A. Silver Angels in Marble (1968)
E. Nordlinger The Working-Class Tories: Authority, Defence and Stable Democracy (1967)
M. Pugh The Tories and the People, 1880-1935 (1985)
M. Pugh ‘Popular Conservatism in Britain: Continuity and Change, 1880-1987’ JBS (1988)
F. Parkin ‘Working-class Conservatives: A Theory of Political Deviance’ BJS 18 (1967)
G. Stedman Jones ‘Working-class Culture and Working-class Politics in London 1870-1900: Notes on the Remaking of a Working Class’ JSH (1974). Also in his Languages of Class.

18. LATE-VICTORIAN CONSERVATISM
B. Coleman Conservatism and the Conservative Party in Nineteenth Century Britain (1988)
R. Colls & P. Dodd (eds.) Englishness: Politics and Culture, 1880-1920 Essays by H. Cunningham ‘The Conservative Party and Patriotism’ & A. Hawkins ‘The Discovery of Rural England’
J. Cornford ‘The Transformation of Late-Victorian Conservatism’ VS (1963)
J. Cornford ‘The Parliamentary Foundations of the Hotel Cecil’ in R. Robson (ed.) Ideas and Institutions of Victorian Britain (1967)
J.P.D. Dunbabin ‘Expectations of the New County Councils and their Realisation’ HJ (1965)
M. Fforde Conservatism and Collectivism 1886-1914
P.R. Ghosh ‘Style and Substance in Disraelian Social Reform c.1860-80’ in P.J. Waller (ed.) Politics and Social Change in Modern Britain (1987)
E.H.H. Green The Crisis of Conservatism: The Politics, Economics and Ideology of the Conservative Party 1880-1914 (1995)
P. Marsh The Discipline of Popular Government: Lord Salisbury’s Domestic Statecraft, 1881-1902 (1978)
M. Pugh The Tories and the People, 1880-1935 (1985)
M. Pugh ‘Popular Conservatism in Britain: Continuity and Change, 1880-1987’ JBS (1988)
R. Quinault ‘Randolph Churchill and Tory Democracy’ HJ (1979)
P. Smith Disraelian Conservatism and Social Reform (1967)
P. Smith (ed.) Lord Salisbury on Politics (1972)
R. Taylor Lord Salisbury (1975)
J.R. Vincent Disraeli (1990)
C. Weston ‘Salisbury and the Lords 1868-1895’ HJ (1982)
P. Fraser ‘The Liberal Unionist Alliance’ EHR (1962)

19. TARIFF REFORM AND ‘THE CRISIS OF CONSERVATISM’
B.H. Brown The Tariff Reform Movement in Great Britain 1881-1895
A. Sykes Tariff Reform in British Politics 1903-1913 (1979)
A.C. Howe Free Trade and Liberal England, 1846-1946 (1997)
P. Fraser ‘Unionists and Tariff Reform’ HJ (1962)
S.H. Zebel ‘Joseph Chamberlain and the Genesis of Tariff Reform’ JBS 7 (1967)
A. Coates ‘Political Economy and the Tariff Reform Campaign of 1903’ JLE 11 (1968)
J. Cunningham Wood British Economists and the Empire (1983)
G.M. Koot English Historical Economics 1870-1926: The Rise of Economic History and Neomercantilism (1987)
P.J. Cain ‘Hobson, Cobdenism and the Radical Theory of Economic Imperialism 1898-1914’ EcHR (1978); and discussion in EcHR (1981)
A. Offer ‘Empire and Social Reform’ HJ (1985)
K.D. Brown ‘The Trade Union Tariff Reform Association 1904-13’ JBS 9 (1970)
P. Cain ‘The Conservative Party and "Radical Conservatism", 1880-1914: Incubus or Necessity?’ Twentieth Century British History 7 (1996)
P.F. Clarke ‘The End of Laissez-Faire and the Politics of Cotton’ HJ 15 (1972)
M. Fforde Conservatism and Collectivism 1886-1914
J. Ridley ‘The Unionist Social Reform Committee 1911-14’ HJ (1987)
E.H.H. Green The Crisis of Conservatism: The Politics, Economics and Ideology of the Conservative Party 1880-1914 (1995)
F. Coetzee For Party or Country: Nationalism and the Dilemmas of Popular Conservatism in Edwardian England (1990)
S. Evans ‘The Conservatives and the Redefinition of Unionism, 1912-21’ TCBH 9 (1998)
J. Lawrence ‘Class and Gender in the Making of Urban Toryism 1880-1914’ EHR (1993)
J. Ramsden The Age of Balfour and Baldwin 1902-1940 (1978)
A. Friedberg The Weary Titan: Britain and the Experience of Relative Decline 1895-1905 (1987)
R. Rempel Unionists Divided: Arthur Balfour, Joseph Chamberlain and the Unionist Free Traders (1972)
A. Gollin Balfour’s Burden: Arthur Balfour and Imperial Preference
D. Dutton His Majesty’s Loyal Opposition: The Unionist Party in Opposition, 1905-1915 (1992)
A. Seldon & S. Ball (eds.) Conservative Century: The Conservative Party since 1900 (1994)
L.S. Amery My Political Life Vol.I
P. Marsh Joseph Chamberlain: An Entrepreneur in Politics (1994)
J. Amery Life of Joseph Chamberlain vols.4 & 5
P. Fraser Joseph Chamberlain: Radicalism and Empire
R. Jay Joseph Chamberlain (1981)
W. Ashley The Tariff Problem
R. Giffen ‘Notes on Imports versus Home production, etc.’ EJ 15 (1905)
A. Balfour Economic Notes on Insular Free Trade
A. Chamberlain Politics From Inside: An Epistolatory Chronicle 1906-14

20. GLADSTONIAN LIBERALISM
M. Barker Gladstone and Radicalism: The Reconstruction of the Liberal Party in Britain 1885-94 (1975)
D.W. Bebbington The Nonconformist Conscience: Chapel and Politics 1870-1914 (1982)
R. Bellamy Victorian Liberalism: Nineteenth Century Political Thought and Practice (1990)
M. Bentley The Climax of Liberal Politics 1868-1918 (1987)
E. Biagini & A. Reid (eds.) Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organized Labour and Party Politics in Britain, 1850-1914 (1991)
E. Biagini Liberty, Retrenchment and Reform: Popular Liberalism in the Age of Gladstone (1992)
D.A. Hamer Liberal Politics in the Age of Gladstone and Rosebery (1972)
F. Harcourt ‘Gladstone, Monarchism and the "New" Imperialism, 1868-74’ JICH
B.H. Harrison ‘State Intervention and Moral Reform’ in P. Hollis (ed.) Pressure from Without in Early Victorian England (1974)
B. Hilton ‘Gladstone’s Theological Politics’ in M. Bentley & J. Stevenson (eds.) High and Low Politics in Modern Britain (1983)
R. Jay Joseph Chamberlain: A Political Study (1981)
H.C.G. Matthew Gladstone 1809-1874 (1986); Gladstone 1875-1898 (1995)
H.C.G. Matthew The Gladstone Diaries (Introduction to Vols.X, XI [1990], covering 1881-86; and to Vols. XII,XIII [1994], covering 1887-96)
J.P. Parry The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain (1993)

21. LIB-LABISM
E. Biagini & A. Reid (eds.) Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organized Labour and Party Politics in Britain, 1850-1914 (1991)
H. Pelling & F. Bealey Labour and Politics 1900-1906 (1958)
P.F. Clarke Lancashire and the New Liberalism (1971)
J. White ‘Review Article: A Panegyric on Edwardian Progressivism’ JBS
H.J. Hanham ‘Liberal Organizations for Working Men 1860-1914’ BSSLH (1963)
R. Moore Pitmen, Preachers and Politics
K.D. Brown ‘The Trade Union Tariff Reform Association 1904-13’ JBS 9 (1970)
H. Pelling Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain (1968) ch.6 ‘Labour and the Downfall of Liberalism’
P. Thompson ‘Liberals, Radicals and Labour in London 1880-1900’ P&P 27 (1964)

22. THE LABOUR ARISTOCRACY
G. Crossick ‘The Labour Aristocracy and its Values: A Study of Mid-Victorian Kentish London’ VS 19 (1976)
G. Crossick An Artisan Elite in Victorian Society (1978)
G. Crossick (ed.) The Lower Middle Class in Britain 1870-1914 (1977)
J. Foster ‘British Imperialism and the Labour Aristocracy’ in J. Skelley (ed.) The General Strike 1926
R.Q. Gray An Artisan Elite in Victorian Edinburgh (1976)
R.Q. Gray The Aristocracy of Labour in Nineteenth-century Britain c.1850-1914 (1981)
E.J. Hobsbawm Labouring Men (1964) ch.15 ‘The Labour Aristocracy in Nineteenth-century Britain’
E.J. Hobsbawm The Forward March of Labour Halted
E.J. Hobsbawm Worlds of Labour (1984) chs.10-13; reviewed by A.J. Reid ‘Class and Organization’ HJ 30 (1987)
H.F. Moorhouse ‘The Political Incorporation of the British Working Class: An Interpretation’ Sociology (1973)
H.F. Moorhouse ‘The Marxist Theory of the Labour Aristocracy’ SH 3 (1978)
H. Pelling Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain (1968) ch.3 ‘The Concept of the Labour Aristocracy’
M.A. Shepherd ‘The Origins and Incidence of the Term "Labour Aristocracy’ BSSLH (1978)

23. THE LABOUR PROCESS
R. Hyman Industrial Relations: A Marxist Introduction (1975)
P. Joyce Work, Society and Politics (1980)
P. Joyce (ed.) The Historical Meanings of Work (1987)
P. Joyce ‘Labour, Capital and Compromise’ SH (1984)
C. Littler The Development of the Labour Process in Capitalist Societies (1982)
C. More Skill and the English Working Class 1870-1914 (1980)
R. Price Labour in British Society (1986)
R. Price ‘The Labour Process and Labour History’ SH (1983)
C. Sabel Work and Politics: The Division of Labour in Industry (1982)
A. Williams Life in a Railway Factory (1984)
T. Wright Some Habits and Customs of the Working Classes (1867; reprint 1967) ‘On the Inner Life of Workshops’
J. Zeitlin ‘From Labour History to the History of Industrial Relations’ EcHR (1987)

24. WOMEN’S WORK
C. Black (ed.) Married Women’s Work (Virago edn. 1983)
J. Bourke ‘Housewifery in Working-Class England 1860-1914’ P&P (1994)
H. Bradley Men’s Work, Women’s Work (1989)
D. Busfield ‘The Social Construction of Skill in the Textile Industry’ TH (1988)
C. Chinn They Worked All Their Lives: Women of the Urban Poor in England, 1880-1939 (1988)
L. Davidoff ‘The Separation of Home and Work? Landladies and Lodgers in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-century England’ in S. Burman (ed.) Fit Work for Women (1979)
B. Drake Women in Trade Unions (Virago edn. 1984)
L. Hall Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950(1991)
E. Higgs ‘Women, Occupations and Work’ HWJ (1987)
A.V. John (ed.) Unequal Opportunities: Women’s Employment in England 1800-1918 (1986)
E. Jordan ‘The Exclusion of Women from Industry in Nineteenth-century Britain’ CSSH (1989)
S. Lewenhak Women and Trade Unions
J. Lewis (ed.) Labour and Love: Women’s Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 (1986)
J. Lewis The Politics of Motherhood (1980)
A. Davin ‘Imperialism and Motherhood’ HWJ (1978)
M. Llewelyn Davies (ed.) Life As We Have Known It (1931, reprinted 1977)
E. Mappen (ed.) Helping Women at Work: The Women’s Industrial Council 1889-1914 (1985)
C. Collette For Labour and For Women: The Women’s Labour League, 1906-1918 (1989)
S. Alexander ‘The Fabian Women’s Group, 1908-1952’ in her Becoming A Woman and Other Essays in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-century Women’s History (1994)
P. Thane ‘Women in the British Labour Party and the Construction of State Welfare, 1906-1939’ in S. Koven & S. Michel (eds.) Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States (1993)
L. Oren ‘The Welfare of Women in Labouring Families: England 1860-1950’ in M. Hartman & L. Banner (eds.) Clio’s Consciousness Raised (1974)
Maud Pember Reeves Round About A Pound A Week (Virago edn. 1979)
S. Pennington & B. Westover A Hidden Workforce: Homeworkers in England 1850-1985 (1989)
E. Roberts A Woman’s Place: An Oral History of Working-Class Women, 1890-1940 (1984)
E. Roberts Women’s Work, 1840-1940 (1988)
E. Ross Love and Toil: Motherhood in Outcast London (1993)
E. Ross Labour and Love: Rediscovering London’s Working-class Mothers, 1870-1914 (1994)
W. Seccombe ‘Patriarchy Stabilised: The Construction of the Male Breadwinner Norm in Nineteenth-century Britain’ SH (1986)
W. Seccombe ‘Starting to Stop: Working-class Fertility Decline in Britain P&P (1990)
C. Dyhouse ‘Working-class Mothers and Infant Mortality in England 1895-1914’ JSH 12 (1978)
A. McLaren Birth Control in Nineteenth-century England (1978)
R. Soloway Birth Control and the Populaiton Question in England 1877-1930 (1982)
D. Thom Feminism and the Labour Movement in Britain 1850-1975 (1987)

25. LABOUR LAW
P.W. Bartrip & Fenn ‘Factory Fatalities and Their Regulation 1878-1913’ EEH (1988)
R. Davidson ‘The Board of Trade and Industrial Relations 1896-1914’ HJ 21 (1978)
M.J. Klarman ‘The Judges versus the Unions: the Development of British Labour Law, 1867-1913’ Virginia Law Review 75 (1989)
A. Fox History and Heritage: The Social Origins of the British Industrial Relations System (1985) chs.4-6
P. Johnson ‘Class Law in Victorian England’ P&P (1993)
O. Kahn-Freund Labour and the Law (1972 edn.) ch.1 [theoretical statement]
K.D. Ewing Trade Unions, the Labour Party and the Law: A Study of the Trade Union Act 1913 (1982)
Kidner ‘Passage of the 1906 Trade Disputes Act’ LS (1982)
M. Klarman ‘Osborne: A Judgement Gone Too Far?’ EHR (1988). Also HJ (1989)
H. Pelling Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain (1968) ch.4 ‘Trade Unions, Workers and the Law’
H. Pelling ‘The Politics of the Osborne Judgement’ HJ (1982)
E.H. Phelps Brown The Origins of Trade Union Power (1982) chs.1-3
J. Saville ‘Unions and Free Labour: The Background to the Taff Vale Decision’ in A. Briggs & J. Saville (eds.) Essays in Labour History (1960)
J. Thompson ‘The Genesis of the 1906 Trades Disputes Act: Liberalism, Trade Unions, and the Law’ TCBH 9 (1998)
C.J. Wrigley (ed.) History of British Industrial Relations 1875-1914 (1982) ch. by Davidson

26. TRADE UNIONISM
G.S. Bain & R. Price Profiles of Union Growth (1980)
BSSLH (1962) special number on the Webbs (articles by Allen, Clegg & Musson)
K. Burgess The Origins of British Industrial Relations (1975)
K. Burgess The Challenge of Labour (1980)
H. Clegg, A. Fox and A.F. Thompson A History of British Trade Unions since 1889 Vol.I (1964)
H. Clegg A History of British Trade Unions since 1889 Vol.II 1911-1939 (1985)
G.D.H. Cole The World of Labour (1913)
R. Currie Industrial Politics (1979) chs.1-3
A. Flanders (ed.) Collective Bargaining
A. Flanders Management and Unions (1970)
A. Flanders Trade Unions (1972 edn.)
A. Flanders & H. Clegg (eds.) The System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain: Its History, Law and Institutions (1954)
A. Fox History and Heritage: The Social Origins of the British Industrial Relations System (1985)
A. Howkins ‘Edwardian Liberalism and Industrial Unrest’ HWJ (1977)
J.R. Hay ‘Government Policy Towards Labour in Britain 1900-14: Some Further Issues’ SLHJ 10 (1976)
K.D. Brown ‘The Trade Union Tariff Reform Association 1904-13’ JBS 9 (1970)
R. Harrison ‘The Webbs as Historians of Trade Unionism’ in R. Samuel (ed.) People’s History and Socialist Theory (1981)
E.J. Hobsbawm ‘Trade Union Historiography’ BSSLH (1964)
E.J. Hobsbawm Labouring Men (1964) chs.16-18
E.H. Hunt British Labour History 1815-1914
R. Hyman Strikes (1975)
R. Hyman Industrial Relations: A Marxist Introduction (1975)
W.E.J. McCarthy Trade Unions (1985 rev. edn.)
W.J. Mommsen & H.G. Hsung (ed.) The Development of Trade Unions in Britain and Germany 1880-1914 (1985)
H. Pelling A History of British Trade Unionism (4th. edn. 1987)
E.H. Phelps Brown The Growth of British Industrial Relations (1965)
E.H. Phelps Brown The Origins of Trade Union Power (1982)
R. Price Labour in British Society (1986)
P. de Rousiers The Labour Question in Britain (1896)
S. & B. Webb Industrial Democracy (1902 edn.)
S. & B. Webb The History of Trade Unionism, 1666-1920 (1920)
C.J. Wrigley A History of British Industrial Relations 1875-1914 (1982)
R. Davidson Whitehall and the Labour Problem in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain

27. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
Allen ‘Origins of Industrial Conciliation’ IRSH (1964)
E. Biagini ‘Trade Unions and Political Economy, c.1860-80’ HJ (1987)
J. Bryce Modern Democracies (1921) chs.51 & 55 [on compulsory arbitration in Australia & New Zealand]
A. Flanders Management and Unions (1970) ‘Collective Bargaining: A Theoretical Analysis’ [critique of the Webbs]
Porter ‘Wage Bargaining under Conciliation Agreements 1860-1914’ EcHR (1970)
Porter ‘Industrial Peace in the Cotton Trade 1875-1913’ Yorkshire Bulletin (1967)
J.H. Treble ‘Sliding Scales and Conciliation Boards: Risk Sharing in the Late Nineteenth-century Coal Industry’ OEP (1987)
S. & B. Webb Industrial Democracy (1902 edn.) Part II chs.2 & 3 [The Webbs invented the term ‘collective bargaining’]
S. & B. Webb The History of Trade Unionism, 1666-1920 (1920) Appendix 3 on sliding scales

28. CRAFT UNIONISM
G. Alderman ‘Railway Companies and Trade Unionism’ HJ (1971)
E. Biagini & A. Reid (eds.) Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organized Labour and Party Politics in Britain, 1850-1914 (1991)essay by Reid on Robert Knight
F.M. Leventhal Respectable Radical: George Howell and Victorian Working Class Politics (1971)
Boyer ‘What Did Unions Do in Nineteenth-century Britain?’ JEH (1988)
D. Busfield ‘The Social Construction of Skill in the Textile Industry’ TH (1988)
M. Daunton ‘Down the Pit: Work in the Coalfields’ EcHR (1981)
R. Gregory The Miners and British Politics 1906-14 (1968)
Hanson ‘Craft Unions, Welfare Benefits and Trade Union Reform 1867-75’ EcHR (1975)
J. Harris in T.C. Smout (ed.) Victorian Values (British Academy, 1992)
M.W. Kirby ‘Locomotive Building Industry 1850-1914: An Engineer’s Paradise?’ BH (1988)
C. More Skill and the English Working Class 1870-1914 (1980)
A. Williams Life in a Railway Factory

29. ‘NEW’ UNIONISM
E.J. Hobsbawm Labouring Men (1964) chs.9-11
R. Hyman The Workers’ Union
J. Lovell ‘Dockers’ Unionism’ IRSH (1988)

30. CO-OPERATION
J.M. Baernreither English Associations of Working Men (1893)
A. Bonner Nineteenth-century Co-operation (1970)
W.H. Brown A Century of London Co-operation (1928)
T.H.S. Escott England: Its People, Polity and Pursuits (1880) ch.13
E.O. Greening A Pioneer Co-Partnership (1923)
F. Harrison ‘Industrial Co-operation’ [1865] in National and Social Problems (1908/1971)
G.J. Holyoake The History of Co-operation (1906 edn.)
P. Johnson Saving and Spending (1985)
W. Lancaster Radicalism, Co-operation and Socialism: Leicester Working-Class Politics 1860-1906 (1987)
S. Pollard ‘Nineteenth-century Co-operation: From Community Building to Shopkeeping’ in A. Briggs & J. Saville (eds.) Essays in Labour History (1960)
B. Potter The Co-operative Movement in Great Britain (1899)
M. Purvis ‘The Development of Co-operative Retailing in England and Wales, 1851-1901’ JHG 16 (1990)
M. Purvis ‘Co-operative Retailing in Britain’ in J. Benson & G. Shaw (eds.) The Evolution of the Retail System, c.1800-1914
E. Ross ‘Neighbourhood Sharing’ HWJ (1983)
A. Toynbee The Industrial Revolution (1884) ‘The Education of Co-operators’
B. Webb My Apprenticeship

31. THE REVIVAL OF SOCIALISM
H. Pelling The Origins of the Labour Party (1965)
G. Foote The Labour Party’s Political Thought: A History (1986)
R. Moore The Emergence of the Labour Party 1880-1924 (1978)
R. Harrison Before the Socialists: Studies in Labour and Politics, 1861-1881 (1965)
R. Barker ‘Socialism and Progressivism in the Political Thought of Ramsay MacDonald’ in A.J.A. Morris (ed.) Edwardian Radicalism, 1900-1914 (1974)
L. Barrow & I. Bullock Democratic Ideas and the British Labour Movement, 1880-1914 (1996)
S. Pierson British Socialists: The Journey from Fantasy to Politics (1979)
S. Pierson Marxism and the Origins of British Socialism: The Struggle for a New Consciousness (1973)
E.J. Hobsbawm Labouring Men (1964) ch.13 ‘Dr. Marx and the Vicotrian Critics’
J.R. MacDonald Socialism and Society (1905)
R.I. McKibbin The Ideologies of Class: Social Relations in Britain 1880-1950 (1990)
J.D. Young Socialism and the English Working Class: A History of English Labour 1883-1939 (1989)
S. Yeo ‘A New Life: The Religion of Socialism in Britain 1883-96’ HWJ (1977)
K. Willis ‘The Introduction and Critical Reception of Marxist Thought in Britain, 1850-1900’ HJ 20 (1977)
S. Pierson Marxism and the Origins of British Socialism (1979)
S. Pierson British Socialists: The Journey from Fantasy to Politics (1973)

32. THE FABIAN SOCIETY
E.R. Pease The History of the Fabian Society (2nd. edn. 1925)
M.I. Cole The Story of Fabian Socialism (1961)
I. Britain Fabianism and Culture: A Study in British Socialism and the Arts, c.1884-1918 (1982)
E.J. Hobsbawm Labouring Men (1964) ch.14 ‘The Fabians Reconsidered’
A.M. McBriar Fabian Socialism and English Politics, 1884-1918 (1962)
R. Miliband Parliamentary Socialism (1961)
G. Foote The Labour Party’s Political Thought: A History (1986)
S. Alexander ‘The Fabian Women’s Group, 1908-1952’ in her Becoming A Woman and Other Essays in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-century Women’s History (1994)

33. THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC FEDERATION
C. Tsuzuki H.M. Hyndman and British Socialism (1961)
E.J. Hobsbawm Labouring Men (1964) ch.12 ‘Hyndman and the SDF’
H. Collins ‘The Marxism of the Social Democratic Federation’ in A. Briggs & J. Saville (eds.) Essays in Labour History 1886-1923 (1971)

34. THE INDEPENDENT LABOUR PARTY
D. Howell British Workers and the Independent Labour Party (1983)
R. Miliband Parliamentary Socialism (1961)
H. Pelling Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain (1968) ch.7 ‘The Story of the ILP’
K.O. Morgan Keir Hardie: Radical and Socialist (1975)
F. Reid ‘Keir Hardie’s Conversion to Socialism’ in A. Briggs & J. Saville (eds.) Essays in Labour History 1886-1923 (1971)
E.P. Thompson ‘Homage to Tom Maguire’ in A. Briggs & J. Saville (eds.) Essays in Labour History (1960)
G. Foote The Labour Party’s Political Thought: A History (1986)

35. THE LABOUR REPRESENTATION COMMITTEE
H. Pelling The Origins of the Labour Party (1965)
H. Pelling A Short History of the Labour Party (1961)
R. Moore The Emergence of the Labour Party 1880-1924 (1978)
G. Foote The Labour Party’s Political Thought: A History (1986)
B. Barker (ed.) Ramsay MacDonald’s Political Writings (1972)
R. Barker ‘Socialism and Progressivism in the Political Thought of Ramsay MacDonald’ in A.J.A. Morris (ed.) Edwardian Radicalism, 1900-1914 (1974)
C.L. Mowat ‘Ramsay MacDonald and the Labour Party’ in A. Briggs & J. Saville (eds.) Essays in Labour History 1886-1923 (1971)
F. Bealey & H. Pelling Labour and Politics 1900-1906 (1958)
E. Biagini & A. Reid (eds.) Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organized Labour and Party Politics in Britain, 1850-1914 (1991)
K.D. Brown (ed.) The First Labour Party (1985)
D. Dean ‘The Character of the Early Labour Party 1900-1914’ in A. O’Day (ed.) The Edwardian Age: Conflict and Stability 1900-1914 (1979)
B.H. Harrison Peaceable Kingdom: Stability and Change in Modern Britain (1982) ‘Traditions of Respectability in British Labour History’
D. Marquand Ramsay MacDonald (1977)
R. Miliband Parliamentary Socialism (1961)
J. Saville ‘The Ideology of Labourism’ in R. Benewick et al. (eds.) Knowledge and Belief in Politics (1973)

36. POVERTY AND POVERTY STUDIES
C. Chinn Poverty Amidst Prosperity: The Urban Poor in England, 1834-1914 (1995)
E.P. Hennock ‘Poverty and Social Theory in England: The Experience of the 1880s’ SH 1 (1976)
E.P. Hennock ‘The Measurement of Urban Poverty: From the Metropolis to the Nation’ EcHR (1987); and R. Davidson’s comment EcHR (1988)
A.S. Wohl ‘The Bitter Cry of Outcast London’ IRSH (1968)
R.I. McKibbin ‘Class and Poverty in Edwardian England’ in his The Ideologies of Class: Social Relations in Britain 1880-1950 (1990)
D. Englander & R. O’Day (eds.) Retrieved Riches: Social Investigation in Britain 1840-1914 (1995)
M. Bulmer, K. Bales & K.K. Sklar (eds.) The Social Survey in Historical Perspective (1991)
K. Bales ‘Lives and Labours in the Emergence of Organised Social Research, 1886-1907’ JHS 9 (1996)
P. Barker (ed.) Founders of the Welfare State (1984) P.J. Waller ‘Charles Booth’; J. Veit Wilson ‘Seebohm Rowntree’
K. Williams From Pauperism to Poverty (1981) chs. on Booth and Rowntree
T.S. & M. Simey Charles Booth: Social Scientist (1960)
J. Brown ‘Charles Booth and Labour Colonies’ EcHR (1968); and reply from T. Lummis
R. O’Day & D. Englander (eds.) Mr. Charles Booth’s Inquiry: Life and Labour of the People in London Reconsidered (1993)
A. Briggs Social Thought and Social Action: A Study of the Work of Seebohm Rowntree 1871-1954 (1961)
J.H. Veit-Wilson ‘Paradigms of Poverty: A Rehabilitation of B.S. Rowntree’ JSP (1986)
R.H. Tawney ‘The Theory of Pauperism’ SR 2 (1909)
J.A. Hobson ‘The Social Philosophy of Charity Organisation’ CR 70 (1896)
C.L. Mowat The Charity Organisation Society: Its Ideas and Work (1961)
M.J. Moore ‘Social Work and Social Welfare 1900-1914’ JBS 16 (1977)
S. Collini ‘The Idea of "Character" in Victorian Political Thought’ TRHS (1985)
W.L. Blackley Thrift and Independence (1884)
H. Bosanquet ‘Wages and Housekeeping’ in C.S. Loch (ed.) Methods of Social Advance (1904)
S. Reynolds A Poor Man’s House (1908; repr. 1982)
M. Pember Reeves Round About A Pound A Week
A.L. Bowley & A.R. Burnett Hurst Livelihood and Poverty
P.H. Mann ‘Life in An Agricultural Village in England’ SP 1 (1904)
J. Burnett Plenty and Want: A Social History of Diet in England from 1815 to the Present Day (1966)
P. Johnson ‘Credit and Thrift and the British Working Class 1870-1939’ in J.M. Winter (ed.) The Working Class in Modern British History (1985)
P. Johnson Saving and Spending (1985)
G. Stedman Jones Outcast London: A Study in the Relationship between Classes in Victorian Society
D. Vincent Poor Citizens: The State and the Poor in Twentieth- Century Britain (1992)
F. Williams (ed.) Why the Poor Pay More

37. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
P. Abrams The Origins of British Sociology 1834-1914 (1968)
P. Kent A History of British Empirical Sociology (1981)
O.R. Macgregor ‘Social Research and Social Policy in the Nineteenth Century’ BJS 8 (1957)
R. Bannister Social Darwinism: Science and Myth in Anglo-American Thought (1979)
P.J. Bowler Evolution: The Meaning of an Idea (1984)
J.W. Burrow Evolution and Society: A Study in Victorian Social Theory (1966)
L.A. Farrall The Origins and Growth of the English Eugenics Movement (1984)
M. Freeden The New Liberalism: An Ideology of Social Reform (1978)
M. Freeden ‘Eugenics and Progressive Thought: A Study in Ideological Affinity’ HJ (1979)
G. Searle Eugenics and Politics in England 1900-1914
G. Jones Social Darwinism and English Thought (1980)
G. Jones Social Hygiene in Twentieth-Century Britain (1986)
A. McLaren Birth Control in Nineteenth-century England (1978)
R.A. Soloway Demography and Degeneration: Eugenics and the Declining Birthrate in Twentieth-Century Britain (1990)
R. Soloway Birth Control and the Populaiton Question in England 1877-1930 (1982)
R.A. Soloway ‘Counting the Degenerates’ JCH (1982)
G. Stedman Jones Outcast London: A Study in the Relationship between Classes in Victorian Society
N. Stepan The Idea of Race in Science (1982)
C. Webster (ed.) Biology, Medicine and Society, 1840-1940
B. Webb My Apprenticeship

38. THE BOER WAR AND NATIONAL EFFICIENCY
T. Pakenham The Boer War (1979)
A.N. Porter The Origins of the South African War (1981)
P. Warwick (ed.) The South African War (1980)
B. Roberts These Bloody Women: Three Heroines of the Boer War (1994)
R. Price An Imperial War and the British Working Class (1972)
A. Summers ‘Militarism in Britain before the Great War’ HWJ 2 (1976)
G.R. Searle The Quest for National Efficiency (1971)
G. Searle Eugenics and Politics in England 1900-1914
B. Semmel Imperialism and Social Reform (1960)
A. Davin ‘Imperialism and Motherhood’ HWJ (1978)
R.A. Soloway ‘Counting the Degenerates’ JCH (1982)
H.G. Simmons ‘Explaining Social Policy: The English Mental Deficiency Act of 1913’ JSH 2 (1978)
B.B. Gilbert ‘Health and Politics: The British Physical Deterioration Report of 1914’ BHM (1965)

39. NEW LIBERALISM: IDEOLOGY AND SOCIAL REFORM
D. Read Edwardian England 1901-1915: Society and Politics (1972)
H. Perkin ‘Individualism versus Collectivism in Nineteenth Century Britain: A False Antithesis’ JBS 17 (1977). Reprinted in his The Structured Crowd.
R. Bellamy Victorian Liberalism: Nineteenth Century Political Thought and Practice (1990)
A.K. Russell Liberal Landslide: The General Election of 1906 (1967)
M. Bentley The Climax of Liberal Politics 1868-1918 (1987)
M. Bentley The Liberal Mind, 1914-1929 (1977)
G.L. Bernstein Liberalism and Liberal Politics in Edwardian England (1986)
E. Biagini & A. Reid (eds.) Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organized Labour and Party Politics in Britain, 1850-1914 (1991)
A. Howkins ‘Edwardian Liberalism and Industrial Unrest’ HWJ (1977)
J.R. Hay ‘Employers and Social Policy in Britain: The Evolution of Welfare Legislation in 1905-14’ SH 4 (1977)
J.R. Hay ‘Government Policy Towards Labour in Britain 1900-14: Some Further Issues’ SLHJ 10 (1976)
K.D. Brown (ed.) Essays in Anti-Labour History
P.F. Clarke Lancashire and the New Liberalism (1971)
J. White ‘Review Article: A Panegyric on Edwardian Progressivism’ JBS
P.F. Clarke Liberals and Social Democrats (1978)
P.F. Clarke ‘The Progressive Movement in England’ TRHS (1974)
D. Blaazer The Popular Front and the Progressive Tradition: SocialistS, Liberals and the Quest for Unity, 1884-1939 (1992)
L. Barrow & I. Bullock Democratic Ideas and the British Labour Movement, 1880-1914 (1996)
S. Collini Liberalism and Sociology: L.T. Hobhouse and Political Argument in England, 1880-1914 (1979)
S. Collini ‘The Idea of "Character" in Victorian Political Thought’ TRHS (1985)
J.A. Thomas The House of Commons 1906-1911: An Analysis of its Economic and Social Character (1957)
H.V. Emy Liberals, Radicals and Social Politics, 1892-1914 (1973)
M. Freeden The New Liberalism: An Ideology of Social Reform (1978)
M. Freeden (ed.) Reappraising J.A. Hobson (1990)
M. Freeden ‘Eugenics and Progressive Thought: A Study in Ideological Affinity’ HJ (1979)
J. Allett New Liberalism: The Political Economy of J.A. Hobson (1981)
P. Barker (ed.) Founders of the Welfare State (1984)
J. Grigg Lloyd George: From Peace to War 1912-16 (1985)
L. Masterman C.F.G. Masterman: A Biography (1939)
J. Harris ‘The Transition to High Politics in Social Policy’ in M. Bentley & J. Stevenson (eds.) High and Low Politics in Modern Britain (1983)
J. Harris ‘Political Thought and the Welfare State 1870-1940: An Intellectual Framework for British Social Policy’ P&P (1992)
J. Harris William Beveridge: A Biography ch.5
L.T. Hobhouse Democracy and Reaction (1904) ch.9 ‘Liberalism and Socialism’
K.S. Inglis ‘English Nonconformity and Social Reform 1880-1900’ P&P 13
R. Jenkins Asquith (1964)
R. Johnson et al. Making Histories ch.1 by Sutton
H.C.G. Matthew The Liberal Imperialists: The Ideas and Politics of a Post-Gladstonian Elite (1973)
K.O. Morgan The Age of Lloyd George (1973)
A.J.A. Morris (ed.) Edwardian Radicalism, 1900-1914 (1974)
M. Richter The Politics of Conscience: T.H. Green and His Age
I.M. Greengarten Thomas Hill Green and the Development of Liberal-Democratic Thought (1981)
S. Den Otter British Idealism and Social Explanation (1996)
G.R. Searle The Liberal Party: Triumph and Disintegration, 1886-1929 (1992)
G.R. Searle ‘The Edwardian Liberal Party and Business’ EHR (1983)
R.N. Soffer ‘The Revolution in English Social Thought 1880-1914’ AHR 75 (1970)
R.N. Soffer Ethics and Society in England: The Revolution in the Social Sciences, 1870-1914 (1978)
J. Thompson ‘The Genesis of the 1906 Trades Disputes Act: Liberalism, Trade Unions, and the Law’ TCBH 9 (1998)
A. Vincent and R. Plant Philosophy, Politics and Citizenship: The Life and Thought of the British Idealists (1984)
P. Weiler The New Liberalism: Liberal Social Theory in Great Britain 1889-1914 (1982)
J. Davis A History of Britain, 1885-1939 (1999)
M. Pugh The Making of Modern British Politics 1867-1939 (1982; 1993)

40. THE GLADSTONE-MACDONALD PACT
H. Pelling & F. Bealey Labour and Politics 1900-1906 (1958)
R. Miliband Parliamentary Socialism (1961)
H. Pelling Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain (1968) ch.6 ‘Labour and the Downfall of Liberalism’

41. THE DEFENCE OF FREE TRADE
A.C. Howe Free Trade and Liberal England, 1846-1946 (1997)
A. Coates ‘Political Economy and the Tariff Reform Campaign of 1903’ JLE 11 (1968)
P.J. Cain ‘Hobson, Cobdenism and the Radical Theory of Economic Imperialism 1898-1914’ EcHR (1978); and discussion in EcHR (1981)
K.D. Brown ‘The Trade Union Tariff Reform Association 1904-13’ JBS 9 (1970)
J. Cunningham Wood British Economists and the Empire (1983)
G.M. Koot English Historical Economics 1870-1926: The Rise of Economic History and Neomercantilism (1987)

42. NEW LIBERAL WELFARE REFORMS
C. Rimlinger Welfare Policy and Industrialisation in Europe, America and Russia
P. Baldwin The Politics of Social Solidarity: The Class Bases of the European Welfare State, 1875-1975 (1990)
A. Briggs ‘The Welfare State in Historical Perspective’ AES 2 (1961)
T.H. Marshall Social Policy
M. Bruce The Coming of the Welfare State
A. Digby British Welfare Policy: From Workhouse to Workfare (1989)
D. Fraser The Evolution of the British Welfare State (1984)
J.R. Hay The Origins of the Liberal Welfare Reforms 1906-1914 (1975)
J.R. Hay ‘Employers and Social Policy in Britain: The Evolution of Welfare Legislation in 1905-14’ SH 4 (1977)
A. Offer ‘Empire and Social Reform’ HJ (1985)
P. Johnson (ed.) Twentieth-Century Britain (1994)
W.J. Mommsen (ed.) The Emergence of the Welfare State in Britain and Germany Part I
G. Ritter Social Welfare in Germany and Britain chs.3 & 4
J. Harris William Beveridge: A Biography
P. Thane The Foundations of the Welfare State (1982)
P. Thane (ed.) The Origins of British Social Policy
P. Thane ‘The Working Class and State Welfare in Britain 1880-1914’ HJ (1984)
D. Vincent Poor Citizens: The State and the Poor in Twentieth-
Century Britain
(1992)
P. Thane ‘Women in the British Labour Party and the Construction of State Welfare, 1906-1939’ in S. Koven & S. Michel (eds.) Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States (1993)
G. Bock & P. Thane (eds.) Maternity and Gender Policies: Women and the Rise of European Welfare States, 1880-1950 (1991)
V. Cromwell ‘Interpretations of Nineteenth Century Administration: An Analysis’ VS (1966)
R. Macleod Treasury Control and Social Administration 1871-1905

43. PENSIONS
C. Booth Old Age Pensions and the Aged Poor
B.B. Gilbert ‘The Decay of Nineteenth-century Provident Institutions and the Coming of Old Age Pensions’ EcHR 18 (1965)
J. Treble ‘The Attitude of the Friendly Societies towards the Movement in Britain for State Pensions 1878-1908’ IRSH (1970)
P. Thane (ed.) The Origins of British Social Policy ch. on pensions
44. HEALTH INSURANCE
B.B. Gilbert The Evolution of National Insurance in Great Britain (1966)
B.B. Gilbert ‘The British Naitonal Insurance Act of 1911 and the Commercial Insurance Lobby’ JBS 4 (1965)
E.P. Hennock British Social Reform and German Precedents: The Case of Social Insurance 1880-1914 (1987)
P. Thane The Foundations of the Welfare State (1982)
P. Johnson (ed.) Twentieth-Century Britain (1994)

45. UNEMPLOYMENT
J. Harris Unemployment and Politics: A Study in English Social Policy 1886-1914 (1972)
J. Harris William Beveridge: A Biography chs.6-8
K.D. Brown Labour and Unemployment 1900-1914 (1971)
K.D. Brown ‘The Labour Party and the Unemployment Question 1906-10’ HJ 14 (1971)
K.D. Brown ‘Conflict in Early British Welfare Policy: The Case of the Unemployed Workmen’s Bill’ JMH (1971)
E.P. Hennock British Social Reform and German Precedents: The Case of Social Insurance 1880-1914 (1987)
G. Phillips & N. Whiteside Casual Labour: The Unemployed Question in the Port Transport Industry, 1880-1970 (1985)
P. Thane The Foundations of the Welfare State (1982)
P. Johnson (ed.) Twentieth-Century Britain (1994)
C.J. Wrigley David Lloyd George and the British Labour Movement
R. Davidson Whitehall and the Labour Problem in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain
W.H. Beveridge Unemployment: A Problem of Industry (1909)
J.A. Hobson The Problem of the Unemployed (1895)
S. & B. Webb The Public Organisation of the Labour Market
B.B. Gilbert ‘Winston Churchill versus the Webbs’ AHR (1965)
R. Vorspan ‘Vagrancy and the New Poor Law in Late Victorian and Edwardian England’ EHR 42 (1977)

46. TAXATION, ‘THE PEOPLE’S BUDGET’ AND THE HOUSE OF LORDS
B. Mallet British Budgets 1887-1913
F. Shehab Progressive Taxation
J. Revell Changes in the Social Distribution of Property in Britain during the Twentieth Century
J. Stamp British Income and Property
G. Dangerfield The Strange Death of Liberal England (1934)
A. Adonis Making Aristocracy Work: The Peerage and the Political System in Britain 1884-1914
C. Weston ‘The Liberal Leadership and the Lords’ Veto 1907-1910’ HJ (1968)
N. Blewett The Peers, the Parties and the People: The British General Elections of 1910 (1972)
H. Emy ‘The Impact of Financial Power on English Party Politics before 1914’ HJ 15 (1972)
B.K. Murray The People’s Budget 1909-1910: Lloyd George and Liberal Politics (1980)
B.K. Murray ‘The Politics of the People’s Budget’ HJ (1973)
B.B. Gilbert ‘David Lloyd George: The Land, the Budget and the People’ AHR 81 (1976)
B.B. Gilbert ‘David Lloyd George: The Reform of British Landholding and the Politics of the Budget of 1914’ HJ 21 (1978)
B.B. Gilbert Lloyd George Vol.I Architect of Change

47. LLOYD GEORGE’S LAND CAMPAIGN
H. Emy ‘The Land Campaign: Lloyd George as a Social Reformer’ in A.J.P. Taylor (ed.) Lloyd George: Twelve Essays
B.B. Gilbert ‘David Lloyd George: The Land, the Budget and the People’ AHR 81 (1976)
B.B. Gilbert ‘David Lloyd George: The Reform of British Landholding and the Politics of the Budget of 1914’ HJ 21 (1978)
M. Tichelar ‘Socialists, Labour and the Land: The Response of the Labour Party to the Land Campaign of Lloyd George before the First World War’ Twentieth Century British History 8 (1997)
R. Douglas Land, People and Politics: A History of the Land Question in the United Kingdom, 1878-1952 (1976)
R. Douglas ‘"God Gave the Land to the People"’ in A.J.A. Morris (ed.) Edwardian Radicalism (1974)
A. Offer Property and Politics 1870-1914 (1981)
T.W. Fletcher ‘The Great Depression in English Agriculture 1873-96’ EcHR (1961)
F.M.L. Thompson ‘Land and Politics in Nineteenth-century England’ TRHS (1965)
H. Perkin ‘Land Reform: Class Conflict in Victorian Britain’ in J. Butt & I.F. Clarke (eds.) The Victorians and Social Protest
J. Brown ‘Scottish and English Land Legislation 1905-11’ SHR 47 (1968)
I. Packer EHR (1996)

48. THE POOR LAW, PHILANTHROPY, SELF-HELP
M. Rose The Relief of Poverty 1834-1914
M. Rose (ed.) The English Poor Law 1780-1930 Part IV
M.A. Crowther The Workhouse System
P. Thane ‘Women and the Poor Law’ HWJ (1978)
E.P. Hennock British Social Reform and German Precedents: The Case of Social Insurance 1880-1914 (1987)
S. & B. Webb English Poor Law History Part II The Last Hundred Years
S. & B. Webb English Poor Law Policy
B. Webb Our Partnership
J. Brown ‘The Appointment of the 1905 Poor Law Commission’ BIHR 13 (1969); and rejoinder from K.D. Brown BIHR 15 (1971)
K. Woodroofe ‘The Royal Commission on the Poor Laws 1905-09’ IRSH 22 (1977)
U. Cormack ‘The Royal Commission on the Poor Laws 1905-09 and the Welfare State’ in A.V.S. Lockhead (ed.) A Reader in Social Administration ch.6
A. MacBriar ‘Charles Booth and the Royal Commission on the Poor Laws’ HS 15 (1973)
A. MacBriar An Edwardian Mixed Doubles (1987)
D. Owen English Philanthropy
C.L. Mowat The Charity Organisation Society: Its Ideas and Work (1961)
H. Bosanquet Social Work in London 1869-1912
J.A. Hobson ‘The Social Philosophy of Charity Organisation’ CR 70 (1896)
R.H. Tawney ‘The Theory of Pauperism’ SR 2 (1909)
J. Fido ‘The C.O.S. and Social Casework in London 1869-1900’ in A.P. Donajgrodski (ed.) Social Control in Nineteenth-century Britain
J.W. Mason ‘Thomas Mackay: The Anti-Socialist Philosophy of the Charity Organisation Society’ in K.D. Brown (ed.) Essays in Anti-Labour History
A.S. Wohl ‘Octavia Hill and the Housing of the London Poor’ JBS 10 (1971)
A. Summers ‘"A Home from Home": Women’s Philanthropic Work in the Nineteenth Century’ in S. Burman (ed.) Fit Work for Women (1979)
J. Lewis ‘Gender, the Family and Women’s Agency in the Building of "Welfare States": The British Case’ SH 19 (1994)
J. Lewis Women and Social Action in Victorian and Edwardian England (1991)
M.J. Moore ‘Social Work and Social Welfare 1900-1914’ JBS 16 (1977)
S. Collini ‘The Idea of "Character" in Victorian Political Thought’ TRHS (1985)
W.L. Blackley Thrift and Independence (1884)
G. Finlayson Citizen, State and Social Welfare in Britain, 1830-1990 (1994)
M. Roofe A Hundred Years of Family Welfare
G. Stedman Jones Outcast London: A Study in the Relationship between Classes in Victorian Society Part III
S. Meacham Toynbee Hall and Social Reform (1987)
P. Gosden Self-Help: Voluntary Associations in Nineteenth-century Britain

49. THE PARLIAMENTARY LABOUR PARTY
H. Pelling The Origins of the Labour Party (1965)
H. Pelling A Short History of the Labour Party (1961)
H. Pelling & F. Bealey Labour and Politics 1900-1906 (1958)
R. Moore The Emergence of the Labour Party 1880-1924 (1978)
G. Foote The Labour Party’s Political Thought: A History (1986)
R. Barker ‘Socialism and Progressivism in the Political Thought of Ramsay MacDonald’ in A.J.A. Morris (ed.) Edwardian Radicalism, 1900-1914 (1974)
C.L. Mowat ‘Ramsay MacDonald and the Labour Party’ in A. Briggs & J. Saville (eds.) Essays in Labour History 1886-1923 (1971)
D.E. Martin ‘The Instruments of the People: The Parliamentary Labour Party in 1906’ in D.E. Martin & D. Rubinstein (eds.) Ideology and the Labour Movement
K.D. Brown (ed.) The First Labour Party (1985)
C. Chamberlain ‘The Growth of Support for the Labour Party in Britain’ Sociology (1973)
D. Dean ‘The Character of the Early Labour Party 1900-1914’ in A. O’Day (ed.) The Edwardian Age: Conflict and Stability 1900-1914 (1979)
D. Marquand Ramsay MacDonald (1977)
H.C.G. Matthew, R.I. McKibbin & J. Kay ‘The Growth of Support for the Labour Party in Britain’ EHR (1976). Also in R.I. McKibbin The Ideologies of Class (1990).
R.I. McKibbin The Evolution of the Labour Party 1910-1924 (1973)
R. Miliband Parliamentary Socialism (1961)
K.O. Morgan Keir Hardie: Radical and Socialist (1975)
R. Gregory The Miners and British Politics 1906-14 (1968)
H. Pelling Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain (1968) ch.6 ‘Labour and the Downfall of Liberalism’ & ch.8 ‘Two By-Elections: Jarrow and Colne Valley, 1907’
D. Tanner Political Change and the Labour Party, 1900-1918 (1990)
D. Tanner ‘The Parliamentary Electoral System, the "Fourth" Reform Act and the Rise of Labour in England and Wales’ BIHR (1984)
K.D. Brown Labour and Unemployment 1900-1914 (1971)
K.D. Brown ‘The Labour Party and the Unemployment Question 1906-10’ HJ 14 (1971)
K.D. Brown ‘Conflict in Early British Welfare Policy: The Case of the Unemployed Workmen’s Bill’ JMH (1971)
P. Thane ‘Labour and Local Politics: Radicalism, Democracy and Social Reform, 1880-1914’ in E. Biagini & A. Reid (eds.) Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organized Labour and Party Politics in Britain, 1850-1914 (1991)
D. Blaazer The Popular Front and the Progressive Tradition: SocialistS, Liberals and the Quest for Unity, 1884-1939 (1992)
L. Barrow & I. Bullock Democratic Ideas and the British Labour Movement, 1880-1914 (1996)
D.J. Newton British Labour, European Socialism and the Struggle for Peace, 1889-1914 (1985)

50. VOTES FOR WOMEN
O. Banks Faces of Feminism (1981)
L. Bland Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality 1885-1914 (1995)
A. Burton ‘The Feminist Quest for Identity: British Imperial Suffragism and "Global Sisterhood" 1900-1915’ JWH (1991)
L. Davidoff & B. Westover ‘"From Queen Victoria to the Jazz Age": Women’s World in England, 1880-1939’ in L. Davidoff & B. Westover (eds.) Our Work, Our Lives, Our Words (1986)
C. Dyhouse Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 (1989)
C. Dyhouse Girls Growing Up in Late-Victorian and Edwardian England (1981)
C. Steedman Childhood, Culture and Class in Britain (1990)
D. Rubinstein A Different World for Women (1991)
S.K. Kent Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914 (1987)
A. Rosen Rise Up Women!
J.R.
Gillis For Better For Worse: British Marriages 1600 to the Present (1985)
R. Phillips Putting Asunder: A History of Divorce in Western Society (1988)
I. Minor ‘Working-class Women and Matrimonial Law Reform, 1870-1914’ in D. Martin & D. Rubinstein (eds.) Ideology and the Labour Movement (1979)
B. Harrison ‘Women’s Health and the Women’s Movement’ in C. Webster (ed.) Biology, Medicine and Society (1981)
C. Davies ‘The Health Visitor as Mother’s Friend: A Woman’s Place in Public Health, 1900-1914’ SHM 1 (1988)
F. Mort Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-Moral Politics in England since 1830 (1987)
P. Levine Victorian Feminism 1850-1900 (1987)
D. Thom Feminism and the Labour Movement in Britain, 1850-1975 (1987)
C. Collette For Labour and For Women: The Women’s Labour League, 1906-1918 (1989)
S. Alexander ‘The Fabian Women’s Group, 1908-1952’ in her Becoming A Woman and Other Essays in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-century Women’s History (1994)
P. Thane ‘Women in the British Labour Party and the Construction of State Welfare, 1906-1939’ in S. Koven & S. Michel (eds.) Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States (1993)
G. Bock & P. Thane (eds.) Maternity and Gender Policies: Women and the Rise of European Welfare States, 1880-1950 (1991)
P. Thane ‘Women and the Poor Law’ HWJ (1978)
B. Harrison Separate Spheres: The Opposition to Women’s Suffrage in Britain (1978)
B. Harrison ‘Women’s Suffrage ar Westminster’ 1866-1928’ in M. Bentley & J. Stevenson (eds.) High and Low Politics in Modern Britain (1983)
P. Hollis Ladies Elect: Women in English Local Government 1865-1914 (1987)
S.S. Holton Feminism and Democracy: Women’s Suffrage and Reform Politics in Britain, 1900-1918 (1986)
S.S. Holton ‘The Suffragist and the "Average Woman"’ WHR 1 (1992)
J. Lewis Women in England 1870-1950 (1984)
J. Lewis The Politics of Motherhood (1980)
A. Davin ‘Imperialism and Motherhood’ HWJ (1978)
A. Summers ‘"A Home from Home": Women’s Philanthropic Work in the Nineteenth Century’ in S. Burman (ed.) Fit Work for Women (1979)
J. Lewis (ed.) Before the Vote Was Won: Arguments for and Against Women’s Suffrage, 1864-1896 (1987)
M. Pugh Women’s Suffrage in Britain 1867-1928 (1980)
J. Rendall (ed.) Equal or Different? Women’s Politics, 1800-1914 (1987)
E. Roberts A Woman’s Place: An Oral History of Working-class Women 1890-1940 (1984)
L. Tickner The Spectacle of Women: Imagery and the Suffrage Campaign 1907-1914 (1987)
M. Vicinus Independent Women: Work and Community for Single Women, 1850-1920 (1985)

51. HOME RULE FOR IRELAND
P. Bew Conflict and Conciliation in Ireland, 1890-1910 (1987)
P. Bew Ideology and the Irish Question: Ulster Unionism and Irish Nationalism 1912-1916 (1994)
V. Bogdanor Devolution (1979) ch.2
D.G. Boyce Nationalism in Ireland (3rd. edn. 1995)
D.G. Boyce (ed.) The Revolution in Ireland, 1879-1923 (1988)
R.F. Foster Modern Ireland 1600-1972 (1988)
A. Gailey ‘Unionist Rhetoric and Irish Local Government Reform’ IHS (1984)
A. Gailey Ireland and the Death of Kindness: The Experience of Constructive Unionism, 1890-1905 (1987)
S. Evans ‘The Conservatives and the Redefinition of Unionism, 1912-21’ TCBH 9 (1998)
T. Garvin The Evolution of Irish Nationalist Politics
A. Jackson The Ulster Party: Irish Unionists in the House of Commons 1884-1911 (1989)
P. Jalland The Liberals in Ireland: The Ulster Question in British Politics to 1914 (1980)
P. Jalland ‘A Liberal Chief Secretary and the Irish Question: Augustine Birrell 1907-1914’ HJ (1976)
J. Kendle Ireland and the Federal Solution: The Debate Over the United Kingdom Constitution 1870-1921 (1989)
M. Laffan The Partition of Ireland, 1911-1925 (1983)
J. Loughlin Gladstone, Home Rule and the Ulster Question, 1882-1893 (1986)
F.S.L. Lyons Ireland since the Famine (1973)
F.S.L. Lyons Culture and Anarchy in Ireland 1890-1939 (1979)
F.S.L. Lyons ‘The Political Ideas of Parnell’ HJ (1973)
N. Mansergh The Irish Question 1840-1921 (2nd. edn. 1965)
A. O’Day ‘Irish Home Rule and Liberalism’ in A. O’Day (ed.) The Edwardian Age: Conflict and Stability 1900-1914 (1979)
E.O. O’Halpin The Decline of the Union, 1892-1920 (1987)
J. Smith ‘Bluff, Bluster and Brinkmanship: Andrew Bonar Law and the Third Home Rule Bill’ HJ (1993)
A.T.Q. Stewart The Ulster Crisis (1967)
C. Townsend Political Violence in Ireland: Government and Resistance since 1848 (1983)
J.R. Vincent ‘Gladstone and Ireland’ PBA (1977)

52. SYNDICALISM AND LABOUR UNREST 1911-14
R. Davidson Whitehall and the Labour Problem in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain
P. Bagwell ‘The Triple Industrial Alliance 1913-22’ in A. Briggs & J. Saville (eds.) Essays in Labour History
R. Church ‘Edwardian Labour Unrest and Coalfield Militancy 1890-1914’ HJ (1987)
H. Clegg A History of British Trade Unions since 1889 Vol.II 1911-1939 (1985)
J. Cronin ‘Strikes and Power’ IRSH (1987)
R. Currie Industrial Politics (1979) ch.3 ‘Syndicalism versus Labour politics’
G. Foote The Labour Party’s Political Thought: A History (1986)
D. Egan ‘The Unofficial Reform Committee and the Miners’ Next Step’ BSSLH (1978)
C. Feinstein ‘What Really Happened to Real Wages 1880-1913’ EcHR (1990)
C. Feinstein ‘New Estimates of Average Earnings in the United Kingdom, 1880-1913’ EcHR (1990)
I. Gazeley ‘The Cost of Living for Urban Workers in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain’ EcHR (1989)
J.T. Murphy Preparing for Power (1934) ch.4
H. Francis & D. Smith The Fed: A History of the South Wales Miners
R. Holton British Syndicalism 1900-1914 (1976)
J. Hinton The First Shop Stewards’ Movement ch.1
W. Kendall The Revolutionary Movement in Britain 1900-21: The Origins of British Communism (1969)
M.W. Kirby The British Coalmining Industry 1870-1946 ch.1
T. Mann Memoirs (1923; repr. ed. K. Coates)
T. Mann Social and Economic Writings (1988, ed. J. Laurent)
R. Miliband Parliamentary Socialism (1961)
W.J. Mommsen & H.G. Hsung (ed.) The Development of Trade Unions in Britain and Germany 1880-1914 (1985) essay by Holton [second thoughts]
K.O. Morgan ‘Socialism and Syndicalism: The Welsh Miners’ Debate’ BSSLH (1975)
H. Pelling Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain (1968) ch.9 ‘The Labour Unrest, 1911-14’
A. Howkins ‘Edwardian Liberalism and Industrial Unrest’ HWJ (1977)
J.R. Hay ‘Government Policy Towards Labour in Britain 1900-14: Some Further Issues’ SLHJ 10 (1976)
J.R. Hay ‘Employers and Social Policy in Britain: The Evolution of Welfare Legislation in 1905-14’ SH 4 (1977)
G. Phillips ‘The Triple Industrial Alliance in 1914’ EcHR (1971)
R. Price ‘Contextualising British Syndicalism, c.1907-c.1920’ Labour History Review
S. & B. Webb What Syndicalism Means (1912)
C.J. Wrigley David Lloyd George and the British Labour Movement

53. ANTI-SOCIALISM
K.D. Brown (ed.) Essays in Anti-Labour History
B. Waites ‘The Language and Imagery of Class in Early Twentieth-century England’ LH 4 (1976)
J. Lawrence ‘Class and Gender in the Making of Urban Toryism 1880-1914’ EHR (1993)
R. Miliband Parliamentary Socialism (1961)

54. A CENTRE PARTY?
B. Harrison Peaceable Kingdom: Stability and Change in Modern Britain (1982) ‘The Centrist Theme in Modern British Politics’
M. Pugh ‘Left in the Centre? Lloyd George and the Centrist tradition in British Politics’ in J. Loades (ed.) The Life and Times of David Lloyd George (1991)

55. THE LEFT
R. Barltrop The Monument: The Story of the Socialist Party of Great Britain (1975) chs.1-6
D. Clark Victor Grayson: Labour’s Lost Leader (1985)
W. Kendall The Revolutionary Movement in Britain 1900-21: The Origins of British Communism (1969)
H. Pelling Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain (1968) ch.8 ‘Two By-Elections: Jarrow and Colne Valley, 1907’
G. Foote The Labour Party’s Political Thought: A History (1986)

56. THE RADICAL RIGHT
G. Searle ‘Critics of Edwardian Society: The Case of the Radical Right’ in A. O’Day (ed.) The Edwardian Age: Conflict and Stability 1900-1914 (1979)
G.D. Phillips The Diehards: Aristocratic Society and Politics in Edwardian England (1979)
W. de Broke The Passing Years (1924)
A. Summers ‘Militarism in Britain before the Great War’ HWJ 2 (1976)

57. THE COMING OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR
D.J. Newton British Labour, European Socialism and the Struggle for Peace, 1889-1914 (1985)
P. Kennedy The Realities Behind Diplomacy (1981)
P. Kennedy The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism, 1860-1914 (1980)
Z. Steiner The Foreign Office and Foreign Policy 1898-1914 (1969)
A.J.P. Taylor The Troublemakers: Dissent over Foreign Policy, 1792-1939 (1957) chs.3-4
K. Wilson (ed.) British Foreign Secretaries and Foreign Policy from Crimean War to First World War (1986)

58. THE DECLINE OF LIBERALISM
D. Read Edwardian England 1901-1915: Society and Politics (1972)
G. Dangerfield The Strange Death of Liberal England (1934)
D.W. Bebbington ‘Nonconformity and Electoral Sociology 1867-1918’ HJ 27 (1984)
G.L. Bernstein Liberalism and Liberal Politics in Edwardian England (1986)
G.L. Bernstein ‘Liberalism and the Progressive Alliance in the Constituencies 1900-1914: Three Case Studies’ HJ 26 (1983)
G.L. Bernstein ‘Yorkshire Liberalism during the First World War’ HJ 32 (1989)
C. Chamberlain ‘The Growth of Support for the Labour Party in Britain’ Sociology (1973)
P.F. Clarke ‘The End of Laissez-Faire and the Politics of Cotton’ HJ 15 (1972)
C. Cook ‘Labour and the Downfall of Liberalism’ in A. Sked & C. Cook (eds.) Crisis and Controversy (1976)
B.M. Doyle ‘Urban Liberalism and the "Lost Generation": Politics and Middle Class Culture in Norwich, 1900-1935’ HJ (1995)
M. Freeden Liberalism Divided: A Study in British Political Thought 1914-1939 (1986)
J.F. Glaser ‘English Nonconformity and the Decline of Liberalism’ AHR 63 (1957-58)
M.W. Hart ‘The Liberals, the War and the Franchise’ EHR (1982)
S. Koss Nonconformity in Modern British Politics (1975)
H.C.G. Matthew, R.I. McKibbin & J. Kay ‘The Growth of Support for the Labour Party in Britain’ EHR (1976). Also in R.I. McKibbin The Ideologies of Class (1990).
H. Pelling Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain (1968) ch.6 ‘Labour and the Downfall of Liberalism’
H. Pelling Social Geography of British Elections, 1885-1910 (1967)
M. Pugh Electoral Reform in War and Peace 1906-1918 (1978)
M. Pugh ‘Political Parties and the Campaign for Proportional Representation, 1905-1914’ PA (1980)
D. Tanner Political Change and the Labour Party, 1900-1918 (1990)
D. Tanner ‘The Parliamentary Electoral System, the "Fourth" Reform Act and the Rise of Labour in England and Wales’ BIHR (1984)
T. Wilson The Downfall of the Liberal Party 1914-1935 (1966)

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