Recent Publications
(A full list of publications since 1979 can be found here.)


Unravelling the Complexities of Pseudocontact Shift Analysis in Lanthanide Coordination Complexes of Differing Symmetry, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2019, Accepted Article, (with A. C. Harnden, E. A. Suturina, A. S. Batsanov, M. A. Fox, K. Mason, M. Vonci, E. J. L. McInnes and N. F. Chilton).

Periodic Trends and Hidden Dynamics of Magnetic Properties in Three Series of Triazacyclononane Lanthanide Complexes, Dalton Trans., 2019, 48, 8400-8409, (with E. A. Suturina, K. Mason, M. Botta, F. Carniato, I. Kuprov, N. A. Chilton, E. L. J. McInnes and M. Vonci).

Sensitivity of Magnetic Anisotropy in the Solid State for Lanthanide Complexes with Small Crystal Field Splitting, Inorg. Chem., 2019, 58, 5733-5745, (with M. Vonci, K. Mason, E. R. Neil, D. S. Yufit, E. J. L. McInnes and N. F. Chilton).

Paramagnetic Lanthanide NMR Probes Signalling Changes in Zinc Concentration by Emission and Chemical Shift: A Proof of Concept Study, Chem. Eur. J., 2019, 25, 6212-6225, (with A. C. Harnden and A. S. Batsanov).

A near-IR luminescent ratiometric ytterbium pH probe, Dalton Trans., 2019, 48, 4471-4473, (with S. Shuvaev).

A Gadolinium Spin Label with Both a Narrow Central Transition and Short tether for Use in Double electron Electron resonance Distance Measurements, Inorg. Chem., 2019, 58, 3015-3025, (with A. Shah, A. Roux, M. Starck, J. A. Mosely, M. Stevens, D. G. Norman, R. I. Hunter, H. E. Mkami, G. M. Smith and J. E. Lovett).

Employing paramagnetic shift for responsive MRI probes, Coord. Chem. Rev., 2019, 383, 30-42, (with A. C. Harnden and N. J. Rogers).


Selective Signalling of Glyphosate in Water Using Europium Luminescence, Dalton Trans., 2018, 47, 16145-16154, (with L. B. Jennings, S. Shuvaev, M. A. Fox and R. Pal).

Aggregation of Rare Earth Coordination Complexes in Solution Studied by Paramagnetic and DOSY NMR, Chem. Eur. J., 2018, 24, 16170-16175, (with A. W. J. Poh, K. Mason, J. A. Aguilar and A. M. Kenwright).

Single-Nanoparticle Cell Barcoding by Tunable FRET from Lanthanides to Quantum Dots, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2018, 57, 13686-13690, (with Chi Chen, Lijiao Ao, Yu-Tang Wu, V. Cifliku, M. Cardoso Dos Santos, E. Bourrier, M. Delbianco, J. Zwier, Liang Huang and N. Hildebrandt).

Exquisite sensitivity of the ligand field to solvation and donor polarisability in coordinatively saturated lanthanide complexes, Chem. Commun, 2018, 54, 8486-8489, (with K. Mason, A.C. Harnden, C.W. Patrick, A.W.J. Poh, A.S. Batsanov, E.A. Suturina, M. Vonci, E.J.L. McInnes and N.F. Chilton).

Lanthanide-induced relaxation anisotropy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018, 20, 17676-17686, (with E.A. Suturina, K. Mason, C.F.G.C. Geraldes, N.F. Chilton and I. Kuprov).

Monitoring the ADP/ATP ratio via induced circularly-polarised europium luminescence, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2018, 57, 7488-7492, (with S. Shuvaev and M. Fox).

APTRA-based luminescent lanthanide complexes displaying enhanced selectivity for Mg2+, Chem. Eur. J., 2018, 24, 7724-7733, (with E.R.H Walter and J.A.G. Williams).

Tuning Mg2+ selectivity: comparative analysis of the photophysical properties of four fluorescent probes with an alkynyl-naphthalene fluorophore, Chem. Eur. J., 2018, 24, 6432-6441, (with E.R.H Walter and J.A.G. Williams).

Chiral probes for α1-AGP reporting by species-specific induced circularly polarised luminescence, Chem. Sci., 2018, 9, 2996-3003, (with S. Shuvaev, K. Mason and E.A. Suturina).

Enhanced selectivity for Mg2+ with a phosphinate-based chelate: APDAP versus APTRA, Dalton Trans., 2018, 47, 1879-1887, (with E.R.H Walter, M.A. Fox, J.A.G. Williams).

Enantioselective cellular localisation of europium(III) coordination complexes, Chem. Sci., 2018, 9, 1042-1049, (with A.T. Frawley, H.V. Linford, M. Starck and R. Pal ).


Solvent polarity and oxygen sensitivity, rather than viscosity, determine lifetimes of biaryl-sensitised terbium luminescence, Chem. Commun., 2017, 53, 13344-13347, (with E.R.H Walter, J.A.G. Williams).

Rationalisation of anomalous pseudo-contact shifts and their solvent dependence in a series of C3-symmetric lanthanide complexes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2017, 139, 14166-14172 (with M. Vonci, K. Mason, E.A. Suturina, A.T. Frawley, S.G. Worswick, I. Kuprov, E.J.L. McInnes and N.F. Chilton).

Beyond Bleaney's Theory: Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Periodic Trends in Lanthanide Induced Chemical Shift, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2017, 56, 12215-12218 (with E.A. Suturina, K. Mason, C.F.G.C. Geraldes, I. Kuprov).

Selectively switching on europium emission in drug site one of human serum albumin, Chem. Commun., 2017, 53, 6724-6727 (with S. Shuvaev and R. Pal).

Equilibrium, kinetic and structural properties of gallium(III) and some divalent metal complexes formed with the new DATAm and DATA5m ligands, Chem. Eur. J., 2017, 23, 10358-10371 (with E. Farkas, J. Nagel, B.P. Waldron, I. Tóth, E. Brücher, F. Rösch and Z. Baranyai).

Responsive, Water Soluble Europium(III) Luminescence Probes, Chem. Eur. J., 2017, 23, 9974-9988 (with S. Shuvaev and M. Starck).

Simultaneous triple imaging with two PARASHIFT probes: encoding anatomical, pH and temperature information using magnetic resonance shift imaging, Chem. Eur. J., 2017, 23, 7976-7989 (with K.N.A. Finney, A.C. Harnden, N.J. Rogers, P.K. Senanayake, A.M. Blamire and D. O'Hogain).

PARASHIFT Probes: Solution NMR and X-ray structural studies of macrocylic ytterbium and yttrium complexes, Inorg. Chem., 2017, 56, 4028-4038 (with K. Mason, N.J. Rogers, E.A. Suturina, I.Kuprov, J.A. Aguilar, A.S. Batsanov and D.S. Yufit).

A new paramagnetically shifted imaging probe for MRI, Magn. Reson. Med., 2017, 77, 1307-1317 (with P.K. Senanayake, N.J. Rogers, K.N.A. Finney, P. Harvey, A.M. Funk, J.I. Wilson, D. O'Hogain, R. Maxwell and A.M. Blamire).

Induced europium circularly polarized luminescence monitors reversible drug binding to native alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, ChemMedChem, 2017, 12, 271-277 (with L. Jennings, R.S. Waters and R. Pal).

Selective signalling of sialic acid in solution by circularly polarised luminescence spectroscopy using a dynamically racemic europium(III) complex, RSC Adv., 2017, 7, 4531-4540 (with E.R. Neil).


Lactate and Citrate Probes, R. Pal and D. Parker, US Patent, US 9448225, granted 20/10/2016; European Patent, EP 2391610 A0, granted 26/10/16.

Responsive Luminescent Lanthanide Complexes, J. Yu, R. Pal and D. Parker, European Patent, EP 1885817, granted 11/05/2016.

'Rare Earth Coordination Chemistry in Action: Exploring the Optical and Magnetic Properties of the Lanthanides in Bioscience While Challenging Current Theories', in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, volume 50, Amsterdam: Elsevier 2016, pp. 269-299, edited by Jean-Claude G. Bünzli and Vitalij K. Pecharsky, ISBN: 978-0-444-63851-9.

Very bright, enantiopure europium(III) complexes allow time-gated chiral contrast imaging, Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 13349-13352 (with A.T. Frawley and R. Pal).

Induced europium CPL for the selective signalling of phosphorylated amino-acids and O-phosphorylated hexapeptides, Dalton Trans., 2016, 45, 8355-8366 (with E.R. Neil, M.A. Fox and R. Pal).

DATATOC: a novel conjugate for kit-type 68Ga labelling of TOC at ambient temperature, EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry, 2016, 1, 1-12 (with J. Seemann, B. Waldron and F. Roesch).

Electromagnetic susceptibility anisotropy and its importance for paramagnetic NMR and optical spectroscopy in lanthanide coordination chemistry, Dalton Trans., 2016, 45, 6782-6800 (with O.A. Blackburn, R.M. Edkins, S. Faulkner, A.M. Kenwright, N.J. Rogers and S. Shuvaev).

Another challenge to paramagnetic relaxation theory: a study of paramagnetic proton NMR relaxation in closely related series of pyridine-derivatised dysprosium complexes, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 4370-4375 (with N.J. Rogers, K.N.A. Finney and P.K. Senanayake).

Structural Control of Cell Permeability with Highly Emissive Europium(III) Complexes Permits Different Microscopy Applications, Chem. Eur. J., 2016, 22, 570-580 (with M. Starck and R. Pal).


Wavelength-dependent optoacoustic imaging probes for NMDA receptor visualisation, Chem. Commun., 2015, 51, 15149-15152 (with N. Sim, S. Gottschalk, R. Pal, M. Delbianco, O. Degtyaruk, D. Razansky, G.G. Westmeyer, V. Ntziachristos and A. Mishra).

Chiral probe development for circularly polarised luminescence: comparative study of structural factors determining the degree of induced CPL with four heptacoordinate europium(III) complexes, Dalton Trans., 2015, 44, 14937-14951 (with E.R. Neil, M.A. Fox, R. Pal, L.-O. Palsson and B.A. O'Sullivan).

Challenging lanthanide relaxation theory: erbium and thulium complexes that show NMR relaxation rates faster than dysprosium and terbium analogues, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 16507-16511 (with A.M. Funk, P. Harvey, K.N.A. Finney, M.A. Fox, A.M. Kenwright, N.J. Rogers and P.K. Senanayake).

Approaching 'Kit-Type' Labelling with 68Ga: The DATA Chelators, ChemMedChem, 2015, 10, 1019-1026 (with J. Seemann, B.P. Waldron and F. Roesch).

Critical design features for the targeted molecular imaging of cell surface receptors, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2015, 44, 2122-2134 (with N. Sim).

Critical analysis of the limitations of Bleaney's theory of magnetic anisotropy in paramagnetic lanthanide coordination complexes, Chem. Sci., 2015, 6, 1655-1662 (with A.M. Funk, K.N.A. Finney, P. Harvey, A.M. Kenwright, E.R. Neil, N.J. Rogers and P.K. Senanayake).

Optimizing the high-field relaxivity by self-assembling of macrocyclic Gd(III) complexes, Dalton Trans., 2015, 44, 4910-4917 (with D. Lawson, A. Barge, E. Terreno, S. Aime and M. Botta).

EuroTracker® dyes: design, synthesis, structure and photophysical properties of very bright europium complexes and their use in bioassays and cellular optical imaging , Dalton Trans., 2015, 44, 4791-4803 (with S.J. Butler, M. Delbianco, L. Lamarque, B.K. McMahon, E.R. 11:14 09/01/2019Neil, R. Pal, J.W. Walton and J.M. Zwier).


Magnetic resonance and optical imaging probes for NMDA receptors on the cell surface of neurons: synthesis and evaluation in cellulo, Org. Biomol. Chem., 2014, 12, 9389-9404 (with N. Sim, R. Pal, J. Engelmann, A. Mishra and S. Gottschalk).

Selective ion pair recognition of citrate and zinc ions in water by ratiometric luminescence signaling, RSC Adv., 2014, 4, 37649-37654 (with B. K. McMahon).

Synthesis of meta and para-substituted aromatic sulfonate derivatives of polydentate phenylazaphosphinate ligands: enhancement of the water solubility of emissive europium (III) EuroTracker® dyes , Org. Biomol. Chem., 2014, 12, 8061-8071 (with M. Delbianco and L. Lamarque).

Bright, Highly Water-Soluble Triazacyclononane Europium Complexes to Detect Ligand Binding with Time-Resolved FRET Microscopy, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2014, 53, 10718-10722 (with M. Delbianco, V. Sadovnikova, E. Bourrier, G. Mathis, L. Lamarque and J.M. Zwier).

Comparative Analysis of Conjugated Alkynyl Chromophore–Triazacyclononane Ligands for Sensitized Emission of Europium and Terbium, Chem. Eur. J., 2014, 20, 8636-8646 (with M Soulié, F. Latzko, E. Bourrier, V. Placide, S.J. Butler, R. Pal, J.W. Walton, P.L. Baldeck, B. Le Guennic, C. Andraud, J.M. Zwier, L. Lamarque and O. Maury).

Induced circularly polarized luminescence arising from anion or protein binding to racemic emissive lanthanide complexes, Methods Appl. Fluoresc., 2014, 2, 024007 (with R. Carr, R.S. Puckrin, B.K. McMahon, R. Pal and L.O. Palsson).

Utility of tris(4-bromopyridyl) europium complexes as versatile intermediates in the divergent synthesis of emissive chiral probes, Dalton Trans., 2014, 43, 5721-5730 (with S.J. Butler, M. Delbianco, N.H. Evans, A.T. Frawley, R. Pal, R.S. Puckrin and D.S. Yufit).

Synthesis, stereocontrol and structural studies of highly luminescent chiral tris-amidepyridyl-triazacyclononane lanthanide complexes, Dalton Trans., 2014, 43, 5490-5504 (with E.R. Neil, A.M. Funk and D.S. Yufit).

Emissive europium complexes that stain the cell walls of healthy plant cells, pollen tubes and roots, RSC Adv., 2014, 4, 9356-9366 (with A.J. Palmer, S.H. Ford, S.J. Butler, T.J. Hawkins, P.J. Hussey, R. Pal and J.W. Walton).

EuroTracker dyes: highly emissive europium complexes as alternative organelle stains for live cell imaging, Chem. Sci., 2014, 5, 1750-1756 (with S.J. Butler, L. Lamarque and R.Pal).

Microscopic Visualization of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors on the Surface of Living Cells Using Bifunctional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Probes, ACS Chem. Neurosci., 2014, 5 (2), 128-137 (with A. Mishra, R. Mishra S. Gottschalk, R. Pal, N. Sim, J. Engelmann and M. Goldberg).

Characterisation and evaluation of paramagnetic fluorine labelled glycol chitosan conjugates for 19F and 1H magnetic resonance imaging, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem., 2014, 19 (2), 215-227 (with E. De Luca, P. Harvey, K.H. Chalmers, A. Mishra, P.K. Senanayake, J.I. Wilson, M. Botta, M. Fekete and A. M. Blamire).


Complete stereocontrol in the synthesis of macrocyclic lanthanide complexes: direct formation of enantiopure systems for circularly polarised luminescence applications, Dalton Trans., 2013, 42, 15610-15616 (with N.H. Evans, R. Carr, M. Delbianco, R. Pal and D.S. Yufit).

Direct and selective tagging of cysteine residues in peptides and proteins with 4-nitropyridyl lanthanide complexes, Chem. Commum., 2013, 49, 9104-9106 (with K.L. Gempf, S. Butler and A.M. Funk).

Moving the goal posts: enhancing the sensitivity of PARASHIFT proton magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, Chem. Sci., 2013, 4, 4251-4258 (with P. Harvey, A. Blamire, J.I. Wilson, K.N.A. Finney, A.M. Funk and P.K. Senanayake ).

Comparative in vitro studies of MR imaging probes for metabotropic glutamate subtype-5 receptor targeting, Org. Biomol. Chem., 2013, 11, 6131-6141 (with S. Gottschalk, J. Engelmann, G.A. Rolla, M. Botta and A. Mishra).

Responsive MR-imaging probes for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and direct visualisation of the cell-surface receptors by optical microscopy, Chem. Sci., 2013, 4, 3148-3153 (with N. Sim, A. Mishra, R. Pal, S. Gottschalk. and J. Engelmann).

Bright Mono-aqua Europium Complexes Based on Triazacyclononane That Bind Anions Reversibly and Permeate Cells Efficiently, Chem. Eur. J., 2013, 19, 9511-9517 (with S.J. Butler, B.K. McMahon, R. Pal and J.W. Walton).

Crystallographic and solution NMR structural analyses of four hexacoordinated gallium(III) complexes based on ligands derived from 6-amino-perhydro-1,4-diazepine, Dalton Trans., 2013, 42, 8001-8008 (with B.P. Waldron and D.S. Yufit).

A bright and responsive europium probe for determination of pH change within the endoplasmic reticulum of living cells, Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 5363-5365 (with B.K. McMahon and R. Pal).

Conformational analysis and synthetic approaches to polydentate perhydro-diazepine ligands for the complexation of gallium(III), Org. Biomol. Chem., 2013, 11, 2827-2838 (with B.P. Waldron).

Very bright europium complexes that stain cellular mitochondria, Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 1600-1602 (with J.W. Walton, A. Bourdolle, S.J. Butler, M. Soulie, M. Delbianco, B.K. McMahon, R. Pal, H. Puschmann, J.M. Zwier, L. Lamarque, O. Maury and C. Andraud).

Structure and stability of hexadentate complexes of ligands based on AAZTA for efficient PET labelling with gallium-68, Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 579-581 (with B.P. Waldron, C. Burchardt, D.S. Yufit, M. Zimny and F. Roesch).

Experimental Measurement and Theoretical Assessment of Fast Lanthanide Electronic Relaxation in Solution with Four Series of Isostructural Complexes, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2013, 117, 905-917 (with A.M. Funk, P.H. Fries, P. Harvey and A.M. Kenwright).

Anion binding in water at lanthanide centres: from structure and selectivity to signalling and sensing, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2013, 42, 1652-1666 (with S.J. Butler).

Boosting 19F MRI-SNR-efficient detection of paramagnetic contrast agents using ultra-fast sequences, Magn. Reson. Med., 2013, 69, 1056-1062 (with F. Schmid, C. Holtke and C. Faber).


Lanthanide complexes as chiral probes exploiting circularly polarized luminescence, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41, 7673-7686 (with R. Carr and N. H. Evans).

Luminescence and upconversion from thulium(III) species in solution, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 13378-13384 (with O.A. Blackburn, M. Tropiano, T.J. Sorensen, J. Thom, A. Beeby, L.M. Bushby, L.S. Natrajan and S. Faulkner).

Live cell imaging of lysosomal pH changes with pH responsive ratiometric lanthanide probes, Chem. Commun., 2012, 48, 8520-8522 (with D.G. Smith, B.K. McMahon and R. Pal).

Measuring equilibrium bicarbonate concentrations directly in cellular mitochondria and in human serum using europium/terbium emission intensity ratios, Chem. Eur. J., 2012, 18, 11604-11613 (with D.G. Smith and R. Pal).

Paramagnetic 19F chemical shift probes probes that respond selectively to calcium or citrate levels and signal ester hydrolysis, Chem. Eur. J., 2012, 18, 8748-8757 (with P. Harvey, A. Mishra, K.H. Chalmers and E. De Luca).

Isostructural series of chiral nine-coordinate lanthanide complexes based on triazacyclononane, Inorg. Chem., 2012, 51, 8042-8056 (with J.W. Walton, R. Carr, N.H. Evans, A.M. Funk, A.M. Kenwright, D.S. Yufit, M. Botta, S. De Pinto, and K-L. Wong).

A chiral probe for alpha-acid glycoprotein and alpha-1-antitrypsin based on europium luminescence, Dalton Trans., 2012, 41, 13154-13158 (with R. Carr, L. Di Bari, S. Lo Piano, R. D. Peacock and J. M. Sanderson).

Lanthanide complexes as paramagnetic probes for 19F magnetic resonance, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2012, 2015-2022 (with P. Harvey and I. Kuprov).

Responsive imaging probes for metabotropic glutamate receptors, Chem. Sci., 2012, 3, 131-135 (with A. Mishra, J. Engelmann and S. Gottschalk).


Structure, resolution and chiroptical analysis of stable lanthanide complexes of a pyridylphenylphosphinate triazacyclononane ligand, Chem. Commun., 2011, 47, 12289-12291 (with J. W. Walton, L. Di Bari, G. Pescitelli, H. Puschmann and D.S. Yufit).

Rapid and accurate analysis of citrate in low-volume seminal fluid samples using a time-gated and ratiometric measurement of europium luminescence, J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. Anal., 2011, 56, 352– 358 (with R. Pal and A. Beeby).

Enantioselective binding of a lanthanide(III) complex to human serum albumin studied by 1H NMR STD techniques, Org. Biomol. Chem., 2011, 9, 5047-5050 (with D. M. Dias, J.M.C. Teixeira, I. Kuprov, E.J. New, and C.F.G.C. Geraldes).

Evidence for the optical signalling of changes in bicarbonate concentration within the mitochondrial region of living cells, Chem. Commun., 2011, 47, 7347-7349 (with D.G. Smith, Ga-Lai Law, B.S. Murray, R. Pal and Ka-Leung Wong).

19F-Lanthanide complexes With increased sensitivity for 19F-MRI: Optimization of the MR aquisition, Magn. Reson. Med., 2011, 66, 931-936 (with K.H. Chalmers, A.M. Kenwright and A.M. Blamire).

Critical design factors for optical imaging with metal coordination complexes, Aust. J. Chem., 2011, 64, 239-243.

Critical in vitro evaluation of responsive MRI contrast agents for calcium and zinc, Chem. Eur. J., 2011, 17, 1529 – 1537 (with A. Mishra and N.K. Logothetis).

Strategies to enhance signal intensity with paramagnetic fluorine-labelled lanthanide complexes as probes for 19F magnetic resonance, Dalton Trans., 2011, 40, 904-913 (with K.H. Chalmers and M. Botta).


Comparative study of the luminescence properties and relative stability of a series of europium(III) complexes bearing one to four coordinated azaxanthone group, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2010, 25, 3961-3966 (with J.W. Walton and L. L. Lamarque).

Synthesis and comparative anion binding profiles of two di-aqua Eu(III) complexes, Dalton Trans., 2010, 39, 9897-9903 (with D. Imperio, G.B. Giovenzana, Ga-lai Law, and J.W. Walton).

Definition of the uptake mechanism and sub-cellular localisation profile of emissive lanthanide complexes as cellular optical probes, Chemical Science, 2010, 1, 111-118 (with E.J. New and A. Congreve).

Synthesis, Chirality and Complexation Phenomena of Two Diastereoisomeric Dinuclear Lanthanide(III) Complexes, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2010, 18, 2663-2672 (with B.S. Murray, C.M.G. dos Santos and R.D. Peacock).

Observation of the selective staining of chromosomal DNA in dividing cells using a luminescent terbium(III) complex, Chem. Commun., 2010, 46, 2391-2393 (with Ga-Lai Law, C. Man and J.W. Walton).

Design Principles and Theory of Paramagnetic Fluorine-Labelled Lanthanide Complexes as Probes for 19F Magnetic Resonance: A Proof-of-Concept Study, Chem. Eur. J., 2010, 16, 134-148 (with K.H. Chalmers, E. De Luca, N.H.M. Hogg, A.M. Kenwright, I. Kuprov, M. Botta, J.I. Wilson and A. Blamire).

Development of responsive lanthanide probes for cellular applications, Cur. Opin. Chem. Bio., 2010, 14, 238-246 (with E.J. New, D.G. Smith and J.W. Walton).