November 2016

Temperatures
(all temperatures in degrees Celsius; all averages 1961 – 1990)

Mean daily maximum: 7.8
Difference from average: -0.9

Mean daily minimum: 2.0
Difference from average: -0.7

Mean air temperature: 4.9
Difference from average: -0.8

Absolute maximum: 15.2 (15th)

Absolute minimum: -3.2 (26th)

Mean grass minimum: -0.2

Absolute grass minimum: -5.9 (26th)

Mean concrete minimum: 0.2

Absolute concrete minimum: -4.6 (26th)

Number of ground frosts: 15

Number of air frosts: 8

Mean soil temperature at 30cm depth: 8.0

Mean soil temperature at 100cm depth: 10.2

Rainfall
(all totals in millimetres; all averages 1961 – 1990)

Total for the month: 87.8
Difference from average: +25.8

Percentage of the average: 142%

Wettest day: 31.4 (21st)

Number of rain days (>0.25mm): 16

Number of wet days (=> 1mm): 12

3-month total rainfall to 30th November: 182.4
Difference from average: +10.4

6-month rainfall total to 30th November: 336.6
Difference from average: -9.6

12-month rainfall total to 30th November: 786.3
Difference from average: +137.3

Humidity
(averages for 09:00 hours GMT)

Relative Humidity: %

Sunshine
(all averages 1961 – 1990)

Total for the month: 84.9 hours
Difference from average: +18.8

Percentage of the average: 128%

Mean daily sunshine: 2.8 hours
Difference from average: +0.6

Sunniest day: 8.6 hours (1st)

Number of days with no recorded sunshine: 1

Cumulative total sunshine since 1st January: 1113.6 hours
Difference from average: -170

ISSN1350-483

Comments on November 2016
After the very mild November in 2015, this November was the complete opposite, equal 41st coldest in 167 years and the coldest since 2010. There were a couple of very mild days in the middle of the month, with maxima of 14.8°C (14th) and 15.2°C (15th), but overall, the maximum only exceeded 10°C on five days. Notwithstanding the generally disappointing temperatures, there were only eight ground frosts, a sign of generally cloudy conditions at night under an often north-easterly air flow.

As last year, November had well above average rainfall, this year being the 35th highest November total since 1850 (but lower than the 100.8mm total in 2015). There were 12 rain days but only one day with a total above 10mm. There was torrential rain on the evening on the 21st, with the hour ending 2000 GMT recording 9.6mm, which must be a rare rainfall intensity for Durham – it certainly felt more like the Lake District that night! (This was not Storm Angus, but the depression which followed immediately after).

Notwithstanding the high rainfall, there was more bright sunshine than normal, the sunniest November since 2005 and the 12th sunniest since 1882.

Professor Tim Burt
Department of Geography
Durham University