October 2016

Temperatures
(all temperatures in degrees Celsius; all averages 1961 – 1990)

Mean daily maximum: 13.3
Difference from average: +0.3

Mean daily minimum: 6.9
Difference from average: +0.1

Mean air temperature: 10.1
Difference from average: +0.6

Absolute maximum: 17.9 (4th)

Absolute minimum: 2.0 (3rd)

Mean grass minimum: 4.5

Absolute grass minimum: -0.7 (3rd)

Mean concrete minimum: 6.0

Absolute concrete minimum: 2.3 (25th)

Number of ground frosts: 1

Number of air frosts: 0

Mean soil temperature at 30cm depth: 12.4

Mean soil temperature at 100cm depth: 13.3

Rainfall
(all totals in millimetres; all averages 1961 – 1990)

Total for the month: 50.4
Difference from average: -2.2

Percentage of the average: 96%

Wettest day: 6.6 (13th)

Number of rain days (>0.25mm): 18

Number of wet days (=> 1mm): 13

3-month total rainfall to 31st October: 164.4
Difference from average: -7.6

6-month rainfall total to 31st October: 290.5
Difference from average: -55.7

12-month rainfall total to 31st October: 799.3
Difference from average: 150.3

Humidity
(averages for 09:00 hours GMT)

Relative Humidity: 92%

Sunshine
(all averages 1961 – 1990)

Total for the month: 76.0 hours
Difference from average: -17.1

Percentage of the average: 82%

Mean daily sunshine: 2.5 hours
Difference from average: -0.5

Sunniest day: 7.2 hours (3rd)

Number of days with no recorded sunshine: 1

Cumulative total sunshine since 1st January: 1028.7 hours
Difference from average: -188.8

ISSN1350-483

Comments on October 2016
October was dominated by easterlies for much of the month, which gave a damp, dull feel to the weather. Even so, temperatures were above average, minima rather more so than maxima. The mean air temperature was only 0.3°C above average but nevertheless in the top quartile, equal 33rd warmest. Of the 32 warmer Octobers in Durham since 1850, eight have been this century. The rainfall total was just below average, but clearly the accumulation of many small events, the wettest day having a total of only 6.6mm. Sunshine was again below average with a disappointing average of only 2.5 hours per day.

Professor Tim Burt
Department of Geography
Durham University