November 2019

Temperatures
(all temperatures in degrees Celsius; all averages 1961 – 1990)

Mean daily maximum: 8.1
Difference from average: -0.7

Mean daily minimum: 3.2
Difference from average: +0.5

Mean air temperature: 5.7
Difference from average:

Absolute maximum: 12.3 (4th)

Absolute minimum: -3.8 (30th)

Mean grass minimum: 2.0

Absolute grass minimum: -6.6 (30th)

Mean concrete minimum: 2.9

Absolute concrete minimum: -4.0 (30th)

Number of ground frosts: 12

Number of air frosts: 7

Mean soil temperature at 30cm depth:

Mean soil temperature at 100cm depth:

Rainfall
(all totals in millimetres; all averages 1961 – 1990)

Total for the month: 106.6
Difference from average: +36.8

Percentage of the average: 153%

Wettest day: 17.0 (4th)

Number of rain days (>0.2mm): 25

Number of wet days (=>1.0mm): 19

3-month total rainfall to 30th November: 279.2
Difference from average: 107.2

6-month rainfall total to 30th November: 540.6
Difference from average: +194.4

12-month rainfall total to 30th November: 745
Difference from average: 96

Sunshine
(all averages 1961 – 1990)

Total for the month: 43.7 hours
Difference from average: -22.7

Percentage of the average: 66%

Mean daily sunshine: 1.5 hours
Difference from average: -0.8

Sunniest day: 6.5 hours (30th)

Number of days with no recorded sunshine: 5

Cumulative total sunshine since 1st January: 1152 hours
Difference from average: -174.1

Wind
(all data from West Building roof, Lower Mountjoy)

Average wind speed: 5.1kph

Maximum gust: 57.9kph (19:00, 7th, ENE)

ISSN1350-483

Comments on November 2019
November was a disappointing month: cold, wet and dull. Even so, it was only the coldest November since 2016. Daytime temperatures were well below average but night-time temperatures were above average, no doubt reflecting the cloud cover. The mean maximum temperature was 27th lowest since 1900, into the bottom quartile; 2016 was 17th lowest. By contrast, 2011 had the second-highest mean maximum for November and 2015 the fourth highest so perhaps November is becoming more variable. Notably, the lowest air temperature recorded was on the last day of the month as settled anticyclonic weather moved in.

It was the coolest autumn since 2012, 0.5°C below the 1981-2010 average. Nevertheless, autumn 2019 ranks equal 67th highest in 150 years and 9.3°C is the median value, so it was hardly an extremely cold autumn, simply a disappointing one given generally warmer ones this century.

From June onwards, all months have recorded above-average rainfall. Whilst not quite as wet as June, this was the 17th wettest November on record since 1850 and the wettest since 2012. This helped contribute to the 13th wettest autumn on record at Durham and again the wettest since 2012.

Almost as dull as November 2018, this was the 18th dullest November at Durham since 1882. This contributed to the 11th dullest autumn on record, the worst since 2001.

Note problems with the West Building AWS on 3rd – 4th so some observations are missing and others are calculated on a limited data set; this only affects the wind recordings reported here.

Emeritus Professor Tim Burt
Department of Geography
Durham University