The HIVE Consortium is producing a range of informational products including printable and audio-visual products for public and agencies, and academic papers.
Audiovisual and printable products for the public and agencies
The new HIVE products are all available on the website of the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network.They are currently available in English, Spanish and Bahasa Indonesia.
- Life with Ash – Accounts from the 2010 Merapi Eruption. This film shares the experiences of communities living near Merapi volcano, Indonesia and how they coped with the volcanic ash which fell during the 2010 explosive eruption. The film aims to help people learn about eruptions and what it is like to experience ashfall. We hope that this will help people to be better prepared for future eruptions.
- How to protect yourself from breathing volcanic ash. This video is about how to protect yourself from breathing volcanic ash. The information in this video can also be downloaded as a pamphlet.
- How to fit a facemask. This video is about how to fit a facemask, to reduce exposure to particles of volcanic ash in the air. The information is also suitable for other kinds of particle exposures (e.g., wildfire smoke and urban air pollution). The information in this video can also be downloaded as a leaflet.
- How to protect yourself from breathing volcanic ash pamphlet. This pamphlet is available in English, Spanish, Bahasa Indonesia and Japanese at: www.ivhhn.org/information/ash-pamphlets. A text version can be found at: www.ivhhn.org/ash-protection.
- Ash Protection poster. Available in English, Spanish and Bahasa Indonesia.
- Fitting a facemask leaflet. The How to Fit a Facemask leaflet is designed to be handed out by agencies, along with facemasks. It is available in English, Spanish and Bahasa Indonesia.
All papers are open access so are freely available for you to read! Many more are in progress so please check back regularly! Papers published to date:
Results of the laboratory experiments:
Mueller, W, Horwell, CJ, Apsley, A, Steinle, S, McPherson, S, Cherrie, JW & Galea, KS (2018). The effectiveness of respiratory protection worn by communities to protect from volcanic ash inhalation. Part I: Filtration efficiency tests. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 221(6): 967-976. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1438463917308003
Steinle, S, Sleeuwenhoek, A, Mueller, W, Horwell, CJ, Apsley, A, Davis, A, Cherrie, JW & Galea, KS (2018). The effectiveness of respiratory protection worn by communities to protect from volcanic ash inhalation; Part II: Total inward leakage tests. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 221(6): 977-984. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1438463917308027
Results of community studies:
Schwartz-Marin, E, Merli, C, Rachmawati, L, Horwell, CJ, Nugroho, F (2020). Merapi Multiple: Protection around Yogyakarta’s celebrity volcano through masks, dreams, and seismographs. History and Anthropology https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02757206.2020.1799788
Covey, JA, Horwell, CJ, Ogawa, R, Baba, T, Nishimura, S, Hagino, M and Merli, C (2020). Community perceptions of protective practices to prevent ash exposures around Sakurajima volcano, Japan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 46:101525. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420919308751
Covey, JA, Horwell, CJ, Rachmawati, L, Ogawa, R, Martin del Pozzo, A-L, Armienta, MA, Nugroho, F and Dominelli, L (2019). Factors motivating the use of respiratory protection against volcanic ashfall: A comparative analysis of communities in Japan, Indonesia and Mexico. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 35:101066. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420918313670
Galea, KS, Covey, J, Mutia Timur, S, Horwell, CJ, Nugroho, F & Mueller, W (2018). Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions—Community Wearability Assessment of Respiratory Protection against Volcanic Ash from Mt Sinabung, Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(11):2359. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/11/2359
Results of the HIVE pilot study:
Horwell, CJ, Ferdiwijaya, D, Wahyudi, T & Dominelli, L (2017). Use of respiratory protection in Yogyakarta during the 2014 eruption of Kelud, Indonesia: Community and agency perspectives. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 382:92-102. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377027317303487
Epidemiological protocols paper (see below)
Mueller, W, Cowie, H, Horwell, CJ, Baxter, PJ, McElvenny, D, Booth, M, Cherrie, JW, Cullinan, P, Jarvis, D, Ugarte, C, Inoue, H. (2020). The development of new standardized epidemiological protocols for use in volcanic eruption crises. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 98:362–364. https://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/98/5/19-244509.pdf
Volcanic Health Impact Assessment review paper
Mueller, W, Cowie, H, Horwell, CJ, Hurley, F, Baxter, PJ (2020). Health Impact Assessment of volcanic ash inhalation: A comparison with outdoor air pollution methods. GeoHealth. 4(7):e2020GH000256. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1029/2020GH000256
Papers related to HIVE:
McDonald, F, Horwell, CJ (2020). Air pollution disasters: liability issues in negligence associated with the provision of personal protective interventions (facemasks). Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. In press. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/3F38DE5457C61803D8FBDB3F220E6AEB/S1935789320000373a.pdf
Smart, NR, Horwell, CJ, Smart, TS, Galea, KS (2020). Assessment of the wearability of facemasks against air pollution in primary school-aged children in London. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17(11):3935. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/11/3935
McDonald, F, Horwell, CJ, Wecker, R, Dominelli, L, Loh, M, Kamanyire, R, Ugarte, C (2019). Facemask use for community protection from air pollution disasters: An ethical overview and framework to guide agency decision making. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 43:101376. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420919308295
Cherrie, JW, Apsley, A, Cowie, H, Steinle, S, Mueller, W, Lin, C, Horwell, CJ, Sleeuwenhoek, A & Loh, M (2018). Effectiveness of face masks used to protect Beijing residents against particulate air pollution. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 75(6): 446-452. https://oem.bmj.com/content/75/6/446
Two respiratory epidemiological protocols have been written for use during future eruption crises, to rapidly determine the health impact of exposure to volcanic emissions. The aim is that use of these ‘off the shelf’ methods will build a strong evidence base of the respiratory health impacts of eruptions, and allow comparison amongst studies, which is not currently possible. The protocols were presented to representatives of health ministries from nine Latin American countries at a meeting hosted by the Pan American Health Organization in Washington DC in December 2018, and are going to be incorporated as part of PAHO’s Regional Response Team assessment tools. The protocols are available here, together with an accompanying explanatory document, and can also be downloaded from the IVHHN website.
A paper relating to the protocols is currently in press (see above).
Train-the-trainer respirator fitting initiative
The HIVE project and IVHHN have a 'train-the-trainer' initiative in association with the International Society for Respiratory Protection. The aim is to train as many people as possible to accurately fit a facemask (as good fit will maximise the level of protection). In January 2019, we trained 73 agency representatives in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. They will now cascade further training down to community level, so that hopefully thousands of people will be trained in correct facemask use. Please contact us to let us know of any training activities.
If you want to initiate training in your community, please use the tools below:
|Train the Trainer PowerPoint||English||Bahasa Indonesia|
|Train the Trainer mask donning observation form||English||Bahasa Indonesia|
|IVHHN Fitting a Facemask Leaflet||English||Bahasa Indonesia|
|IVHHN Fitting a Facemask video||English||Bahasa Indonesia|
The trainer should:
- Present the PowerPoint presentation;
- Demonstrate how to put a mask on;
- Demonstrate how to put a mask on, again, with the trainees copying each step. Assistants should help, checking that trainees have fitted the mask correctly.
- Ask the trainees to divide into pairs. Trainees act out being a trainer and trainee. The 'trainer' puts on the mask, talking the 'trainee' through the procedure. The 'trainee', scores how well the 'trainer' performs using the mask donning observation form. Then swap - the trainer becomes the trainee. Repeat the task. Again, assistants should help to check that people are learning accurately.
- At the end of the session, trainers should ask the trainees to commit to training more people. They should report new training activities to the trainer, who should report all activities to IVHHN (via PMI Yogyakarta (Pak Arif Rianto), if in Indonesia). A training session takes 1 - 1.5 hours.