In order to understand the factors that influence whether people will wear facial protection during ashfall, two surveys will be undertaken in Mexico, Japan and Indonesia. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews to examine factors affecting facemask use from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives will be conducted at each location.

The questionnaire surveys, co-designed by Durham Co-Is and local partners, will be piloted and adjusted with input from survey participants. The survey will focus on psychological factors associated with facemask use, such as perceptions of risk and ability to control the threat, derived from protection motivation theory (PMT).

In-depth interviews will evaluate the contextual strategies that people use when selecting, enacting or dismissing facial protection during ashfall, taking into account climate, culture, religion, and trust in agencies.