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The History of Tudhoe Village

by Jeremy Hutson

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Documents 1330-1569

There are considerable numbers of documents that mention Tudhoe in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. Among these are the Chancery Rolls (CR), abstracted in the Appendices to the Reports of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records (at Palace Green, PGRef 016.091 PUB) for Bishops Bury (1333-1345) [vol. 31], Hatfield (1345-81) [split between vols. 31 and 32], Fordham (1381-88), Skirlaw (1388-1405), Langley (1406-1437) [vol. 33], Neville (1438-57) [vol. 34], Booth (1457-76) and Dudley (1476-83) [vol.35], Sherwood (1485-93), Fox (1494-1501), Severs (1502-05), Bainbridge (1507-08), Ruthall (1509-23), Wolsey (1523-29) [vol. 36], Tunstall (1530-59), Pilkington (1561-76), Barnes (1577-87), Hutton (1589-94), Matthew (1595-1606) [vol. 37] and James (1606-17) [vol. 40]. There are also Inquisitions Post Mortem (IPMs): those from Bishop Neville (1438) to about 1640 are summarized in the Appendix to the 44th Report, and abstracts of those for Bury to Langley in the 45th Report. Handwritten abstracts of the IPMs for 1317-1437 (in Latin) also exist in a 17th century bound volume, DHC1 M66, at Palace Green. The information below comes from these summaries: dates are from the printed Reports and serial numbers from the book of abstracts. The documents themselves are in the PRO at Kew, and I have not yet inspected them.

The following are my notes on relevant entries from the IPMs and Chancery Rolls. Not all of them are for Tudhoe directly, but they all have some bearing. I have interspersed a few entries about relevant regional and national events.

Other documents that should be searched (at Palace Green) are the Sheriffs and Escheators Accounts and the Coroners Accounts: see CCB/List 1 and List 7 for indices (the List of Financial and Audit Records for the Palatinate of Durham to 1649).

Ralph Neville (30 August 1367) and John Neville (5 Nov 1388) held the manors of Raby and Brancepeth among others (from the Prior of Durham?) but Tudhoe is not mentioned explicitly in the synopses. However, John Neville was succeeded by his son Ralph, who was created 1st Earl of Westmoreland in 1397; as described above, Ralph held lands that included "the manor of Tudhowe" (9 Nov 1425, Reg. Vol. II, fo. 230 and 26 May 1436, Reg. Vol. II, fo. 264). Ralph 2nd Earl of Westmoreland (4 Dec 1484, Portf. 168, no. 1) and Ralph 3rd Earl of Westmoreland (16 June 1498, Portf. 169, no. 32) held "the manor and vill of Tudhow". Ralph 4th Earl of Westmoreland (27 Jun 1549, Portf. 177, no. 82 and Reg. Vol. III, fo. 61) held "the manor of Tuddhowe and lands and tenements there". The IPM for the next earl, Henry 5th Earl of Westmoreland (28 Aug 1564, Reg. Vol. VI, fos. 18 and 42) names Charles, aged 21, son and heir of Henry, but does not list Tudhoe separately. Perhaps it was absorbed into Brancepeth around 1560.

Lord Barnard says that there are no papers dating from the Neville period at Raby Castle.

Court Roll 1493-5

The only relevant reference in the Manorial Document Register is to a fragment of a court roll from 1492-3 in the PRO, SC/171/2. I have a photocopy (7 sides, roughly A3 size, in Latin. Pat Mussett translated it orally for me, and the information given here is from my notes. Any errors are likely to be mine.

The section headings (in the margin) give an idea of the area then administered from Brancepeth. The first 3 pages detail entries referring to
Brauncepath, Stokley, Wyllington;
Helmedenrawe, Crooke, Billerawe, Est Brandon, Whytworth, Tuddowe;
Elden (?), Thornlay, Bynchestre.
The one section headed Tuddowe lists Rob Harryson, Ricus Harryson, Joh Hunter, Wills Hackfurth (?), Wills Hald (?), Joh Hunter (?), then continues:
a penalty is assigned that nobody shall [fal...?] selions and baulks, penalty 4d
a penalty is assigned that ...
a penalty is assigned that nobody shall hold any more draught animals beyond the existing number and they are to be removed by the Feast of the Invention of the Holy Cross; a penalty is paid to the lord of 6s 8d

There is then a page giving the "total of fines and amercements within the Barony of Brancepeth this year: 4 li 3s 8d / 9 li 5s 7d.
There are two lists of totals; the first reads:
Brauncepath lixs vjd, Bail (?) de Ysseley ?iiijs iiijd, Batt de Tudho iijs vjd, Bail de Whitworth vs vijd, Bail de Thornley xs iiijd, Coll de Elden ?vjs ixd, Coll de Elwyk vijs viijd, Cott de ???? viijs ijd, Staindrop xvs iiijd, Forest de ??? xxiijs iiijd.
[I am not sure of some of the numbers, especially the symbol indicated ?]
The second list is added so close to the edge of the paper that parts have been lost, but roughly corresponds:
bail Braunce..., bail Thorn..., bail de yssel... bail de tuddo, coll de Eld.., coll de Elw... coll de ???...

The last 3 pages run through the villages again:
Eldon,
Helmedanrawe, Crokbillyrawe, Estbrandon, Whytworth, [lost in margin, probably Tudho]
Brauncepath, Stokley, Willington [surely these last 3 are p. 4, not p. 7, giving the same order the second time through]
There is no summary page for the second time through. Note that some places had "bailiffs" and others "collectors". Tudhoe had a bailiff.

Entries from the "Tudhoe?" section are transcribed below under Hogeson and Watson, and there are two more:
John Lewyn complains against William Saundre and John Moolson in a plea of detention of one cow
William Robison chaplain complains against John Tyndall in a plea of debt of 9s... and the jury say that Thomas Tyndall owes to the complainant... the amount of 9s.

Lists of Tudhoe residents 1570-1770

Calendar of Patent Rolls 1570

Lists of those pardoned for their part in the 1569 Rebellion exist in the Calendar of Patent Rolls for 1570. Nos. 585-1019 are lists of those included in "group pardons" issued on 25 April 1570:

Pardon for ..., for all treasons, rebellions and other offences committed between 1 Nov, 11 Elizabeth, and 31 Jan following. On report of their penitence for their part in the rebellion in the North, testified before commissioners of the Queen.

They need checking more thoroughly for Tudhoe names, but I noticed the following on a preliminary scan:

No. 677: Edward Salveyn the younger of Croxdayll, co. Durham, gentleman. ("Edward" is probably a misreading or mistranscription of Jerrard).

No. 796: William Hogeson of Madenstedhall, yoman, William Claxton of Waterhouse, gentleman, Nicholas Fetherstonhaigh of Awkenshawe, Ralph Willie of Houghton, yoman, Martin Jackson of Hellmendenrawe, Christopher Shawe of Branspeth, yoman, Ralph Pickering of Mawde Medows, Rowland Wall of Willington, yoman, Ninian Watson of Sommerhouse, yoman, and Edward Marley of Engleston, all in the county of Durham.
This includes several names from Sharpe's list (see below).

It is rather remarkable that Hodgson, Fetherstonhalgh, Willie, Jackson, Pickering and Watson are all names that figure in Tudhoe in the 17th century.

No. 868 includes Francis Walker of Hett, yoman.

No. 872 includes Henry Siggiswick of Tudde, Humphrey Iley of Branspeth, husbandmen.

No. 873 includes Ralph Byerley of Tuddo, husbandman.

No. 875 includes Ralph Watson of Tuddo, James Trotter of Byershall, yomen.

No. 879 includes William Whitt of Newfeld, co. Durham, husbandman (but note that Isabella Whyte, widow, is listed at Newfeld in Byers Green in Homberston's survey, so this is probably not William White of Tudhoe).

No. 880: Henry Richardson, William Duckett, Humphrey Jackson, John Heigh, William Harrison, William Bullock and Robert Wheatley, laborer, all of Tuddo, co. Durham, husbandmen; Robert Wright of Whitworth and Robert Adamson of the same, husbandmen, and John Morison, all in the said county.

No. 917 includes Ralph Watson of Thorpethewles, co. Durham.

There are 10 names here specifically listed as "of Tuddo". Sharp's "Memorials of the Rebellion" says that 10 men "of Tuddey" took part in the rebellion. However, we cannot assume that there is a direct correspondence: it appears that even people who did not actually take part in the rebellion may have though it prudent to apply for pardons.

Sharp also gives a table that indicates that two men "of Tuddey" were executed for their part in the Rebellion. Executions were appointed to take place in every township from which people joined the rebellion. However, it is not clear whether anyone from Tudhoe was actually executed. George Bowes's letters leave the impression that by no means all of the 700 people "appointed" for execution were actually executed: he was probably trying to satisfy the Queen's demands without executing more people than was actually necessary. He also says that all those executed were "of the meaner sort" (his words): the Queen had instructed him that "you may not execute any that hath freeholds, or noted wealthy" (Sharp, p. 144): she wanted to fine them instead!

Sharp also mentions a few other interesting names: Thomas Watson (p. 146), Robert Shafto (Westmoreland's servant?) frequently (p. 139, 150, 157, 161, etc.), Jeret/Gerrett Salvyn (p. 128, 138, 140).

Names mentioned as Tudhoe tenants by Homberston (see below) but not yet unambiguously found in the lists of those pardoned are:
William Hodgson, William White, John Colman, Emery Whetley, Richard Harrison, Emery Richardson, Johanna Awlde, John Sparke.

If any Tudhoe residents were executed, they are probably among this list - though of course Homberston might not have listed them then, anyway: I am not sure of the precise date of his survey. Was Johanna Awlde a woman? George Bowes gives the impression that, when a man was executed, it was considered sufficient and his wife retained his property and land.

Sharp's "Memorials of the Rebellion" (p. 142) records a letter from Lord Hunsdon written on 9 January 1569/70, with

"a list of the names of such as the Erl of Warwick and the Lord Admiral have received into their protection:
Will Hodhson, Geo. Curtpeny, Will. Claxton, Nic. Fetherstonhaugh, John Emerson, Geo. Birkaine, Christ. Shawe, Henry Lytell, Martin Jackson, Raufe Peckering, Rauff Newball, Raver Anderson, Trynyan Watson, Hen. Killinghall, Ant. Arrowsmith, Gyles Goland, Ant. Coyttsworth, Water Bankes, Chr. Atkinson, Raufe Newbie, Will. Banks, James Wood, Raufe Dodsworth, Tho. Warde, Tho. Mabson, John Averie, Ric. Dodsworth, Martin Wake, James Amors, John Corneforth, Rob. Smeton, Peter Crathorne, John Robinson."

The letter containing this reference is in Haynes State Papers, p. 573, but the list of names itself is not. Several of the names correspond with those in pardon no. 796 above. However, Madenstedhall is the same as Manor House, Lanchester: Surtees quotes Hatfield's Survey: "The Prior of Hexham holds a messuage called Maydenstanhall and seventy acres, sometime belonging to Simon de Ashe, by knight's service, and at the four terms 13s 4d." After the dissolution of the monasteries, this passed (indirectly) to William Hodgson (who was the fourth son of James Hodgson of Newcastle) on 20 July, 1 Marie (1553). Although William Hodgson died in 1598, the inquisition post mortem for him wasn't until 1600 (this needs looking for in the Spearman-Mickleton papers at Palace Green: Surtees says vol XXXIII, p. 43). This William Hodgson thus did not live in Tudhoe, though he may still have held lands there. Nic. Fetherstonhaugh may be Nicholas Fetherstonhaugh of Stanley (see Homberston's survey below). William Hodgson's grandfather John Hodgson had married a daughter of a Fetherstonhaugh of Stanley (Surtees).

Homberston's Survey of 1570

After the rebellion, William Homberston and Richard Asshton were commissioned to produce a survey of the lands of the Earl of Westmoreland. The resulting document is known as Homberston's Survey: among much else, it lists Tudhoe rents on p. 321, 322, 323 and 324, with details of each holding in Latin. The following information is abstracted from the Tudhoe entry.

Note: Elizabeth's regnal years are dated from 17 Nov 1558, and Mary's from 6 Jul 1553.

Free tenants

Tenants for a term of years

Tenant at will:

Sum tot manorii p dci 24L 18s 3d et 1 libr pipis

In feod Radi Watson custod boscon mann pd p termino vite suo p lras patent Caroli comte Westml p ann 60s 8d

Et rend clar p ann ... 21L 17s 7d et libr pipis

This last clause names Ralph Watson as woodward (forester) for the manor of Tudhoe.

The closes named for Ralph Watson correspond to those named as Pemberton lands in 161?, and still exist on the tithe plan of 1839:

Since it is clear that Ralph Watson lived on West Row, this supports the idea that he was in or near the present South Farm.

The last of the leases, to Emmerius Whetley, is different from the rest; it specifies the area of arable land and makes no mention of meadows, pastures, rights of pasture, etc. This sounds like assart land, with no accompanying share of the common fields.

Notable entries elsewhere

Other entries that are notable (because they involve named properties, or involve lease dates before Queen Elizabeth) include:

Johnes Philip, gentleman, Hollywell, p. 295
Radus Malom, Quarrell Hyll, 27 July 2/3 Philip/Mary, p. 295
Robtus Conyers, Wolleye, 1 Jan 2 Eliz, p. 295v
Willms Farrowe, Hat (?) Whyte, p. 295v
Johnes Herteforth, Morley, p. 295v
Elmora Hall, Lumpe, 24 Oct 2/3 Philip/Mary, p. 296
Humfrey Ileye, Beyley Hole, p. 296
Ricus Jackson, assign Willi Lodge, water-grain-mill in Brancepeth, 13 Nov 2/3 Philip/Mary, p. 297
Ricus del Hyll House, p. 297v
Willius Lee, Willius Hodgson and Henricus Ridley, quarries etc in Brancepeth, 11 Eliz (very recent!), p. 298v
Henricus Braban, capital messuage called Pedgebanke, p. 298v
Willius Hodgeson's assign Willi Lumson, Hedley Hope (6/13/4, since 1554: an actual date AD), p. 302v
Nichus Fetherstonhaugh, Stanley, 8 (?) Oct 4/5 Philip/Mary, p. 303
Elizabeth Hodgeson, Foggell ?ole (in ...land Row), p. 303
Georgine Lawson, assign Willi Lee, Ivesley, 8 Nov 2/3 Philip/Mary, p. 304v
Anthonine Wrenne, totam villam Bynchester, L16 19s 4d, 13 Dec 2/3 Philip/Mary, p. 305
Robtus Fisheburne, free tenant in M???, p. 305v
Thomas Whyte (in Whitworth) 10 Dec 3/4 Philip/Mary, p. 305v
Thomas Watson, capital messuage in Whitworth, p. 306v
Isabella Trotter, Byars Hall, 10 Dec 3/4 Philip/Mary, p. 306v
Isabella Whyte, widow, assign Robti Wright, Newfeld (in Byers Green)
Georgine Whyte, Newfeld (in Byers Green)
Henricus Garstell, ???? Well Hyll (in Thornley)
Johnes Stotte, Hodgehouse (in Thornley)
Robtus Byrtched (?), capital tenement called West Brandon, 21 Oct 5/6 Philip/Mary
Thomas Byerley, tenement in Elm Park
Radus Pykeryng, 26 Oct 2/3 Philip/Mary
Christopher Iley, le Borne (in Willington)
Johanna Carlelsley, tenement with water grain mill in Crook/Billy Rawe, 24s 3d, p. 313v
Crook / Billy Rawe:
Free tenant: Anthonins Wrenne
Tenants with leases for a term of years: Thomas Johnson (Crook, 60s 1d), Willius Dawson (13s 1d), Radus Pukeryng (35s 7d), Humfridus Mayre (7s 1d), Willius Stepper (22s 1d), Johanna Carlelsley, Thomas Jackson (7s 1d), Thomas Wrene (10s ob), Willius Kendall (10s ob), Willius Wrene (18s 5d), Willius Jackson (6s 6d ob), Johnes Jackson (6s 6d ob), Anthonins Wrenne (8s 7d), Elizabeth Jackson vid (10s 8d), Willius Lee, gentleman (12s 5d)
Tenants at will: Radus Pukeryng (18s 10d ob), Barthus Smyth (12d)
Hered Robti Brandon Mihtis (?!), Langley (in East Brandon), p. 315v
Willius Lee, gentleman, Estbrandon, 2 Apr 2 Eliz
Anthonine Salven and Thomas Culven, Hillhouse (in East Brandon)
Thomas Richardson, quarries called Biggyn (in East Brandon)
Walterus Banke, Hareholm (in East Brandon)
Johnes Harryson, Sydebournehouse (in East Brandon)
Johanna Byas, Pynglehouse (in East Brandon)
Willius Lee, gentleman, "tenet vertus terrus" the Longhouse (in West Brandon), 28 Feb 2/3 Philip/Mary, L10
Anthoninus Salven, 13 June 1 Mary (20 yrs)
Johnes Herryson, water corn mill in West Brandon
Martinne Rippon, Sutonhouse (in Sutonfield)
Jacobus Bertram, Westgate (in villa ... Castri)
Willius Wyvell, armiger, tenement in Hutton
Rogerus Ratclyff, gentleman, the Close (in Elvet), 4 Edward VI (21 yrs)
Christoferus Ratcliff, Newton Hunsard, 28 Sept 4/5 Philip/Mary
Robtus Clayton, Westmorton
Willius Lee, Willius Hodgeson and Henricus Ridley, Oxnell (in Oxnell Field) in pochia de Darlington

Francis Walker 1573

Francis Walker leased (the whole of?) Tudhoe from the Crown in 1573. D/Sa/D 615 is a copy of the 21-year lease. It is fairly legible, and needs study. Was this Francis Walker of Hett, mentioned in the "group pardons", or someone else? If the lease itself doesn't say, it would be worth noting the date and checking the Patent Rolls.

Wills 1570-1600

Emry Richardson died in 1573. His will (30 Sept: Reg IV, 82) leaves "a freehouse in Awlde Elvett in Durham" to his wife Agnes during her life and then to his son John. Another son William is left "a great arke" and daughters Isabel and Agnes are mentioned. He also leaves "the lease of my farm land to Agnes my wife and William my son that is to say three parts to my wife and the fourth part to William my son". The witnesses are Henry Richardson, Willm Herrison, John Highe and John Sparke.

Rauffe Byerley died on 8 October 1573, and his will was taken down by Raufe Watson and Henry Richardson his neighbours. Daughters Isabelle, Janet, Elizabeth and Agnes are mentioned. The Latin probate looks as though it also mentions a son Ralph who was the principal heir (and probably born after his death).

Henry Richardson died in 1579. His will (28 Jan: Reg V, 96v-97) asks that his wife Isabell "be in the house with her son Robert accordingly as she and I have been". Brothers John Richardson of Marington (also with a son Robert) and Robert Richardson are mentioned. His son Robert Richardson is the executor, but "Robert Richardson my brother and Raphe Watson the bailiff to see the same fulfilled". The witnesses are Raphe Watson, William Harrison, John Richardson and John Sparke.

Janet Awlde died in 1583 (will + inventory, Reg VI, 7).

Thomas Watson of Whitworth died in 1584. His will (April 1584) mentions his wife Ellinor, brother Henry and sons (in margin), John and William. He also says "I give to Margaret Pemmerton one cowe" and "I give to Michael Pemmerton a stoned stagge". Was Ralph Watson's daughter Margaret married to Michael Pemberton by then? Their son John was 34 when Michael died in 1624, so it's fairly close. At least it suggests that the Watsons of Whitworth and Pembertons (of Aislabie?) knew one another.]

John Highe died in 1587. His will (21 December: Reg VII, 2) leaves the lease on the Tudhoe mill, and on half the Billirawe mill, to his son Thomas. He evidently had extensive connections in Billirawe. He commits the tuition of his children Isabel, Janet and Thomas to Michael Pemberton, Henry Trewhitt and Robert Richardson respectvely. He also mentions his brother Thomas Highe and his sons Nicholas, John and Martyn (?). The witnesses are William Harrison, Robert Richardson, Henry Trewhitt, Nicholas Pemberton, Antony Maddison and others. The inventory (Reg VII, 10-11v) was prepared by Marmaduke C..., John S..., William Harrison, William Jaxon, Richard Harrison and William Ducket on 4 Jan 1587.

[The enrolled copy of John Highe's will actually refers to Billingham, rather than Billirawe (Billy Row, near Crook) in several places. However, Thomas Highe was recorded with land in Billy Rawe in the Neville Survey of 1606, and his tenement has the same rent as the Billy Rawe mill in Homberstone's Survey. The references to Billingham must be an error by the clerk who transcribed John Highe's will into the register.]

Henry Seighwick, husbandman, died in 1587. His will (7 Sept 1587: Reg VII, 187v-188) says "to Georg Seighwick and Willm Seighwick my sons the lease of my farmhold and my will is that they shall govern all my other children". His other children Thomas, Janet, Annys, Isbill and Alison are left 40 s each. "All my farnitorye (?) I give my son George that is to saye a bowe and a shaiffe of arrows a steel cap a sword." However, there is also a bond that suggests that Thomas and Janet died soon afterwards, as minors. The will is witnessed by Robt Richardson, Henry Truet, Willm Jackson and Robt Byars. Robert Byers and Roger Wheatley owed HS 21s and 24/2d respectively. Willm Harryson, Robt Richeson, Henry Trewhitt and Willm Jackson prepared the inventory on 9 January 1587.

Bayning et al. 1597-1601

After the Northern Rebellion in 1569 and the confiscation of Neville lands by the Crown, Tudhoe was evidently leased to Francis Walker for 21 years from 1573. It then passed to George, Earl of Cumberland, who sold it to Paul Bayning, John Watts and Thomas Alabaster of the City of London in 1597. Bayning et al. then set about selling it in parcels.

D/Sa/D 616 is a conveyance of the manor of Brancepeth to Paul Bayninge, John Watte and Thomas Alabaster of the City of London (1597) from George, Earl of Cumberland. It refers to lands in Tuddowe als Tudhoe now or late in the several tenures or occupations of:

Willm Hodgson, Henrye Siggiswick, John Highe, Willm White, Willm Durkett, John Colman als Cowlman, Emmery Whitley, Richard Harrison, Emery Richardson, Johan Awlde, Rafe Watson, Raphe Bierley, John Sparke, Willm Bullock, Willm Harryson, Henry Richardson, Humfrey Jackson and Emery Whetley.

Since probate records tell us that several of these people had died by 1597, this must be a straight copy of the list in Homberston's Survey, and does not tell us who was in occupation in 1597.

There are many deeds in the Salvin papers that describe the sales of land by Bayning et al. in 1600-02. They are all quite similar in form, and refer the lands as "now or late being in the tenure or occupation of ...", referring back to tenants in Homberston's Survey. They also describe the lands as "late parcel of the possessions of Charles late Earl of Westmoreland of high treason ... attainted, and to one Francis Walker by the ... patent of our Sovereign Lady...".

The deeds in the Salvin papers allow most of these lands mentioned by Homberston to be followed through to their next owners:
William Hodgeson's land was sold to Henry Trewthet (but half of it soon on to Henry Fetherstonhalgh)
Henry Siggiswick's land was sold to his son George Siggiswick
John Highe's land was sold to his son Thomas Highe
William White's land was sold to Robert Richardson (but soon on to Thomas Highe) (check this: it doesn't tie in with the fee farm rents below, which show it back in William White's hands).
Willius Duckett: this was the land "in the occupation of William Harrison" that was sold to Duckett's son-in-law William Harrison (labourer), along with the Colman land and two plots of Wheatley land.
John Colman's land was sold to William Harrison, and then back to Thomas and John Colman.
Emmery Whetley's land was sold to William Harrison, and then probably back to Ralph Wheatley.
Richard Herryson's land: deeds not traced, but probably sold to him or to John Harrison.
Emmerius Richardson's land was sold to John Richardson (see below)
Johanna Awlde: deeds not yet traced, but transferred somehow to George Freville and then sold to Ralph Dunn (see below)
Ralph Watson's land was sold to Michael Pemberton (his son-in-law)
Ralph Byerley's land was sold to his son Ralph Byerley
John Sparke: deeds not yet traced, but probably to him and then passed on to Ralph Sparke (see below)
William Bullock: deeds not yet traced, but probably to him and then on to John Sparke (see below)
William Harryson's land was sold to Robert Richardson (but then sold to Roger Harrison son of William Harryson in 1601). (But the 1607 fee farm rent below still lists William Harrison for 19/9d)
Henry Richerdson's land was sold to his son Robert Richardson
Humfridus Jackson's: deeds not yet traced, but probably to him or to William Jackson
Emmerius Whetley's land was sold to William Harrison, and then probably back to John Wheatley (see below); note that this land is distinct from Emmery Whetley's: Emmery and Emmerius may or may not be different people.

Where did the Tudhoe tenants get the money to buy their lands? John Highe might have been rich enough, but it seems unlikely that Ralph Byerley or the two Richardsons were. Were there mortgages for which no documents have survived?

Wills 1600-1620

A William Harrison died in 1605. His will (1603) leaves the lease on his farm to his wife, and then to his son Michael. Other children Margaret, Agnes, Elizabeth and Richard are mentioned. William Duckett is named as William Harrison's father-in-law. The witnesses are William Duckett, William Jackson, Robert Richerdson. The inventory was prepared by Thomas Shortrigg, John Sparke, John Colman and John Wheatley. This was clearly William Harrison (labourer), not the husbandman of 1570; no son Roger is mentioned (and Margaret Harrison owned the Harrison labourer's lands in 1629). The fact that William Duckett was this William Harrison's father-in-law, and was still alive in 1605, is also clear evidence.

William Richardson died in April 1606. He leaves 10 L, a table and an arke to his brother John Richardson, 8L 10s Raphe owes and a further 6L to Raphe Byerley his brother in law. No children are mentioned, and his brother John gets the residue of his estate. The witnesses are Robt Richardson and Wm Siggeswick.

Ralph Watson of Thorpthewles, yeoman, died in 1612. His will (Sept 1612: Reg VII, 342-343) mentions his wife Anne and son William. He says "I give unto my daughter Margaret three score and ten pounds and gods blessing and mine". The witnesses are Francis Grene and William Bambrough. Is this the same as Ralph Watson of Tudhoe, who also had a wife Ann and daughter Margaret? Recall that two Ralph Watsons, of Tudhoe and Thorpe Thewles, were pardoned in 1570. This is very confusing!

Recusant Estreat Roll 1607

There is very little information about County Durham in the Elizabethan Recusant Rolls. There are occasional references to Durham people in the York rolls, but most of the records have been lost.

Prosecutions for recusancy were relaxed with the accession of James I in 1603. However, feelings against Catholics were inflamed by the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Even then, the King urged against extending the blame to other Catholics.

Prosecutions for recusancy in 1607 are listed in the Durham Quarter Sessions Rolls 1471-1625, published in Surtees Society vol. 199. Nos. 160-162 are
William Herrison of Tudhoe, yeo.,
Agnes Trewhitt, wife of Henry Trewhitt of the same,
Margaret Richardson, wife of Robert Richardson of the same.
No. 167 is --, wife of Thomas Shortred of Heighington, yeo.
No. 221 is Anne Yonge, wife of Ralph Yonge of the parish of Croxdale, yeo.

Quarter Sessions 1612

George Ellison of Tudhoe, yeoman, George Lilbourne of the same, yeoman, Isabel Bussey late of Coundon, Jane Crawe wife of Francis Crawe late of the same, and Eleanor Pearson late of the same, on 10 June 1612 broke into the park of the Bishop of Durham at Bishop Auckland and peeled 200 elms.

Neville Survey 1606-7

Survey of the manors of Raby, Brancepeth and Barnard Castle.

Through the diligence, exact observation and walking round to examine and measure, performed by Thomas Chaitor, Esq., supervisor of all Royal property in the Bishoprick of Durham, and Thomas Robinson and Aaron Rathbone, gentlemen.

Pages 33-34 contain a list of tenants:

Michaell Byars 8s 6d
Anthonius Speede 1s

Feodae Firme ibu concessage nuper Comite Cumbriae
Henricus Fetherstonhaugh and Henr Trewhett 5L 7s 2d
Georgius Siggeswicke 1L 10s 6d
Thomas Highe 1L 9s 2d
Wills White 9s 2d
Willius Duckett 9s 2d
Nicholaus Coaleman 4s 6d
Emerius Wheatley 5s 6d
Richardus Harrison 1L 7s 2d
Johannes Richardson 15s 10d
Radulphus Dunne 16s 6d
Michaell Pemerton 3L 13s 2d ob
Radulphus Bierley 19s 9d
Johannes Sparke 19s 9d
Wills Bullocke 10s
Wills Harrison 19s 9d
Robertus Richerdson 2L 17s 8d
Willius Jackson 1L 6s 6d
Johannes Whetley 12s 6d (surely 7/6d?)

Liberi tenentes ibu
Wille Iley 6d
Johannes Wheatley 6d and 1L pepper

A later section lists

Michaell Biars holds his tenement ... by letters.... Eliz 34...
One parcel of land called the Garth: 1 rood
... parcels of arable land in the East Field: 3 acres
... parcels of arable land in the Middle Field: 2 acres
... parcels of arable land in the West Field: 2 acres
... the Town pasture: 6 acres 2 roods.. 3L 2s.

Anthonius Speede holds his house and renders per ann xii d

Willius Iley holds freely his cottage... vi d
His house and garden: 2 roods
His croft: 2 acres
His parcels of arable land in the East Field: 2 acres
His parcels of arable land in the Middle Field: 1 acre
His parcels of arable land in the West Field: 2 acres

Johannes Wheatley holds freely his cottage and renders per ann vi d
His house and garden
His croft: 2 roods
His parcels of arable land in the East Field: 2 acres
His parcels of arable land in the Middle Field: 1 acre
His parcels of arable land in the West Field: 2 acres

This list is clearly in the same order as Homberston, and the rents are the same. Remarkably few surnames have changed since 1570:
Fetherstonhaugh and Trewhett have replaced Hodgson
Dunne has replaced Awlde
Pemerton has replaced Watson

The list fails to reflect a number of changes of ownership that we know took place in 1600-1605. I suspect that the compilers updated their information on the more important landowners, but did not bother much with the smaller ones. Information from deeds should take precedence when it is available.

Recusants, 11 Jan 1615

(in the Durham Quarter Sessions Rolls 1471-1625, Surtees Society vol. 199, 92/24: a long list of recusants presented on 11 Jan 1615 includes
Margaret Richardson of Tuddoe, widow,
Jane Underwoodd of the same, widow,
-- Morland of the same, widow,
Barbara Colman wife of Thomas Colman of the same, yeo., ... and Mary Pemberton wife of Michael Pemberton of Landieu, yeo.,
being aged 16 years and more on 1 Sept 1614 failed to attend their parish church for the space of 3 months, contrary to the statutes of 1 and 23 Elizabeth. It was publicly proclaimed at the general sessions that they should each surrender to the sheriff of Durham to appear on 19 April 1615, which they failed to do.

Jurors

The Durham Quarter Sessions Rolls list Tudhoe residents as jurors:

102: John Richardson on 9 Jan, 19 James [1622]
107: John Sparke on 7 April, 22 James [1624]
I think Thomas Highe is listed too, but it needs checking.

1629 Survey

RCE Rental 5.6 at the Corporation of London Record Office (in the Guildhall) is a long and detailed survey of the manor of Brancepeth. It is dated 1629, but the card index notes that it is a lightly emended copy of the 1606-7 survey (with names changed etc.). Michael Pemberton died in 1624, and Henry Richardson had left in 1621, so the names cannot have been updated very thoroughly.

The survey is in Latin, but much less tidily written than Homberston, so some of my interpretations are little more than guesswork. The sums of money could probably be read reliably by someone better at palaeography.

The section under Tuddowe (pages 110-111) lists

Michael Biars Sigiswick vid holds one tenement ... closes by letters patent granted ... May in Eliz 34 .. Jerrett Allanson, George Mason, Cecilie (?) Heigh, John Langton, Robert Byars, John Cheapchase (?) for the term of 21 years from the feast of the annunciation of the Virgin Mary... 8s 6d.

One house (domus) and horrium (garden?)

One parcel... East field

Feod firm:

Radus Byerley holds one tenement by letters patent ... 22 June (?), 15 Eliz... 19s 9d
Radus Wheatley... 5s 6d
John Sparke... 10s
John Wheatley... 7s 6d
Thomas Highe... 29s 2d
??? Thomas... 9s 2d
John Harryson... 27s 2d
Will Jackson... 27s 6d
Radus Dunn... 16s 6d
Radus Sparke... 19s 9d
Georgius Sidgwick... 30s 6d
Hen Trewhett... 53s 7d
Hen Richardson... 57s 4d (presumably 57s 8d)
Hen Fetherstonhaugh... 53s 7d
Roger Harryson... 19s 9d
John Richardson... 15s 10d
Michael Pembton... 3L 13s 2d ob
Thomas Coleman... 4s 4d (presumably 4s 2d)
Margaret Harryson... 9s 2d

Anthonius Speede Michael Foster holds one house...

Free tenants:
Willmus Iley one cottage

The fee farm rents again appear to be identical to those listed in Homberston's Survey (when allowance is made for my transcription errors and unfamiliarity with the script used). However, this time the order has changed. The numbers in the following list refer to the order of the entries in 1570 and 1607:

12. Radus Byerley is in the same place
7. Radus Wheatley has replaced Emmery Whetley
14. John Sparke succeeded William Bullock between 1607 and 1629
18. John Wheatley succeeded Emmerius Whetley between 1570 and 1607
3. Thomas Highe succeeded John Highe between 1570 and 1607 (in 1587, see below).
4/5 ??? Thomas has replaced White (this needs checking; could it be "the said Thomas"?)
8. John Harryson succeeded Richard Herryson between 1570 and 1607
17. Will Jackson succeeded Humphrey Jackson between 1570 and 1607
10. Radus Dunn succeeded Johanna Awlde between 1570 and 1607
13. Radus Sparke succeeded John Sparke between 1607 and 1629
2. George Sidgwick succeeded Henry Siggiswick between 1570 and 1607
1a. Hen Trewhett has acquired about half of William Hodgson's lands between 1570 and 1607
16. Robert Richardson succeeded Henry Richardson between 1570 and 1607
1b. Hen Fetherstonhaugh has acquired the other half of William Hodgson's lands between 1570 and 1607
15. Roger Harryson apparently succeeded William Harryson between 1607 and 1629 (though actually it was Roger who bought the land in 1601).
9. John Richardson succeeded Emry Richardson between 1570 and 1607
11. Michael Pembton succeeded Ralph Watson between 1570 and 1607
6. Thomas Coleman succeeded Nicholas Coleman between 1607 and 1629; Nicholas succeeded John Coleman between 1570 and 1607.
4/5 Margaret Harryson has replaced Duckett (or possibly White) between 1607 and 1629.

There is no obvious relationship between the orderings in the two lists, though it is worth further thought.

In addition to the tenements, there are a few holdings that are non-standard:
6d + pepper (free): John Cook 1570, John Wheatley (cottage) 1607
6d (free): William Iley 1570, William Iley (cottage) 1607,
8s 6d: Margaret Byers 1570, Michael Byers 1607 (3L 2s), Sidgwick 1629 (8s 6d again)
1s: Anthony Speede (house) 1607, Michael Foster 1629

1622 witnesses to the sale of the Hall lands

On 6 August 1622, Henry Richardson and Mary his wife sold (or mortgaged) their remaining lands to Sir Henry Woodrington, Ralph Young and Richard Jackson for 400 (or 700?) pounds (D/Sa/D 625, which mentions lands "heretofore of Henry Richardson grandfather of the said Henry and also by Robert Richardson father of Henry"). The deed is witnessed by Jerrard Salvin, Christopher Hodgshon, Nicholas ?ehoe, George Siggeswicke (his mark), Thomas Highe, ???? ??? and ??? Awlde (is this a complete list?)

1629 Survey

RCE Rentals Box 5.4 in the Corporation of London Record Office contains another survey of Brancepeth Lordship that definitely is from September 1629, but it makes very little mention of Tudhoe. It is headed:

A brief survey taken upon oath of the tenants of the ??? Lp of Branspeth in the County of Durham in Sept 1629 at a Court of Survey then holden for the City of London by Willm Smith citizen and mercer of London and Arnold Child of Grays Inn Esq holding the place of Steward there for his turn.

Entries of note are:

Brancepeth:
...
Lanslot Hodgson; a tenement
...
Tho Atkinson; a cottage

Tuddow (just one entry):
Michall Richardson; tenement; 2 1/2 gates; 0-8-6; true yearly value 4-0-0; 3 lives

There is a note at the foot that: 9000 li and upwards raised in fines in this Lordship since anno domini 1615 for leases for 3 lives or 31 years whereof many tenants which have so compounded do yet want their leases.

Recusants' Rolls 1636-7

Surtees Society vol. 175, pp. 168.

Tenants of Anne Trewitt of Tuddoe (89) owe 66s 8d p.a. ... an annuity of 100s ... for the term of her life ...
And 33s 4d ... total 100s.
89. Anne wife of Henry Trewhitt conv. 1624, ind. 1628; Anne Trewitt widow conv. 1632. 100s collected under a fieri facias 1638.
The same Anne Trewitt ... 6 pounds ... goods ...

Tenants ... of Barbara Coleman (90) of Tuddoe owe 20s p.a. ... of a tenement in Tuddoe a.v. 30s.
and 10s ... Total 30s.
90. Barbara wife of Tho. Coleman conv. 1615, 1624, ind. 1628; widow, conv. 1632.
The same Barbara Coleman ... 40s ... goods ...

John Potter sen of Tuddoe and John Potter jun of the same (91) 40s ... goods ...
91. John Potter tailor and Margaret his wife conv. 1624, ind. 1628.
John Potter and Anne his wife conv. 1625.

John Sidgeswicke (92) of the same 20s for the like ...
92. Conv. with Mary his wife 1632; refused Protestation 1642.

Tenants ... of Isabella Jackson of Tuddoe (93) owe 53s 4d p.a. ... of a cottage in Tuddoe and 4 acres a.v. 4 pounds ... in fee.
And 26s 8d ... Total 4 pounds.
93. Conv. wife of Wm. Jackson of Tuddoe 1606/7; widow 1624, ind. 1628, conv. 1632; owed 4 pounds on goods 1635.
40s of the above 4 pounds was collected by the Sheriff, 1638.
The same Isabella Jackson 100s ... goods ...

Ship Money 1636

J. Nef, Rise of the British Coal Industry, Vol. II, 1966, gives a transcription of an assessment for Ship Money in 1636 (Hunter MSS 22, no. 17, Durham Cathedral Library).

The only "personal estates" listed for Tudhoe are those of John Briggs and John Sparke, each valued at 100 pounds and taxed at 13s 4d. Also listed is "Geo Conningham of Sunderland", who is probably Ralph Young's heir (value 500 pounds, tax 3 L 6s 8d).

Also listed are "Cole Mynes of Tuddoe in the occupation of Mr. H. Wright, so payes 13s 4d."

I wonder exactly what qualifies as a personal estate? There were only 29 of them in the whole of Darlington Ward. Perhaps the lands confiscated from the Earl of Westmoreland were still technically crown estates, in which case these two may correspond to the Cooke and Iley lands in Homberston's Survey.

I have a note that John Sparke was listed as a colyer in 1636. Was it in this document?

John Sparke's inventory 1637

John Sparke's will is the only Tudhoe will I have found from the period 1630-1660. His inventory was appraised by John Richardson, Ralph Byerley, Thomas Highe and Henry Lash. All these wrote their marks rather than their signatures: it's not clear who actually wrote down the inventory.

Many people owed John Sparke money, though (presumably) not all were Tudhoe residents. This list is:
Raiph Dunn; John Douthwaite and Raiph Douthwaite; John Richardson; Mr Baxter and Michael Patterson; Richard Liddell and Stephen Egleston; Edward Wright and Robert Wright; Edward Wright and Wm Wright; Henry Berkfent (?); William White and Myles White; Xpo Dreston (?); Thomas Wright; Thomas Parking (?) and Henry Heighington; George Jackson; George Emerson and Jo Douthwaite; Richard Summersett; Wm Hale; George Lee; Thomas Wright; Robert Midleton and Jo Wright; Richard Steadman; George Lee; John Sparke Jun; Thomas Richouse; John Iley; Michell Norman; John Netter (?) Jun; Wm Harrison; Xpo Heandson (?); Wm Richardson; Jo Foss...; Jo Foss... Jun; John Woodhouse Jun; Edward Wright; William Wright.

1639 Enclosure Award

The following list is abstracted from the enclosure award of 2 November 1639, D/Sa/E 571-573, relating to the Town Fields of Tudhoe. The names are given in their fullest form, with places of residence, in the preamble. Each clause specifies that "We doe order and award that there shall be laid forth in severaltie unto ... for his right in the ... [so much land] be it more or less as it is now dowled and set out, boundering on the lands of ... on the east ... [and other directions]".

I have made some progress with completing the jigsaw. The West Field was the land west of and around the Brancepeth road, beyond the north end of the village (including a little land south of the Whitworth road). The Middle Field was between the Brancepeth Road and Chair Lane, excluding Trewhitt's land (behind Coldstream). The East Field probably lay between the Durham Road and York Hills Road. The Watergate was across Durham Road from the Black Horse, and Bedspiece was on the right at Five Lane Ends.

The totals are: east field 170 a; middle field 137a 3r; west field 123 a; bedspiece 12 a; watergate 8 a, adding up to 450 a. Since a square mile is 640 acres, this is about two thirds of a square mile in all.

The list of people who were party to the agreement includes several who were not awarded any land: John Briggs, Henry Lashe, William Wilson, Cuthbert Glenn, George Sidgwick. John Briggs is mentioned as owning land in the entry for John Sparke above. Cuthbert Glenn was Ralph Fewler's tenant (D/Sa/D 1192). Were the others just relatively small landowners, or are they the elusive tenants from this period?

The land assignments suggested above help work out what land was in individual ownership before 1639. Most of the neighbouring lands mentioned refer to other enclosure awards being made at the same time, but there are exceptions:
Raphe Trewhitt's lands were probably down by the river beyond Coldstream;
Henry Sidgwick had a small piece of land immediately past Chair Lane.
William Bierley may have had Red Byre Field and Great Stony Lands.

A general conclusion is that very little beyond the Whitworth Road or Partnerships Lane was freehold land before 1639.

D/Sa/E 571 is another enclosure award, for Spenny Moor, dating from 1669. However, it is even more complicated and probably less use for working out who owned what in the village itself.

Correlation of areas, rents and sale values

It is interesting to correlate the fee farm rents, 1600-01 sale values and enclosure award areas:
Name Rent Sale price Award area
Fetherstonhaugh and Trewhett 107s 2d 330 40(M) + 16(M)
Henry and George Sidgwick 30s 6d 115 2(W,mill) + 43(W)
Thomas Highe 29s 2d 68 (but fee farm 19/2d in deed?) JS in 1639
Wills White 9s 2d see 349 JS in 1639
Willius Duckett 9s 2d 31 (for 4 tenements, to Wm Harrison (lab))
Colman 4s 6d see 31 2.25(W)
Emerius Wheatley 5s 6d see 31
Richard, John, Hugh Harrison 27s 2d JS in 1639 (or Shortrick:20?)
Emery, John Richardson 15s 10d 32(W)
Johanna Awlde, Ralph Dunn 16s 6d 16.5(E)
Ralph Watson, Michael Pemberton 73s 2d ob 460 85(E)
Ralph Bierley 19s 9d ? 15(M)
John Sparke 19s 9d 10(E) + 12(beds)
Wills Bullocke 10s George Sparke: 8(watergate)
William, Roger Harrison 19s 9d see 349 Fewler: 19(W) + 5(M)
Henry, Robert Richardson 57s 8d 349 (for 3) JS in 1639
Willius Jackson 26s 6d 22(M)
John, Michael Wheatley 7s 6d see 31 13(W)
Margareta, Michael Byers (7 a ar + 6.5 a pas) 8s 6d
Anthony Speede, Michael Foster (no land) 12d
William Iley (5 a) free, 6d (Willie:7?)
John Cooke, John Wheatley (5a) free, 6d + pepper
John Willie 7(W) (or see Iley)
Jerrard Salvin 59(E) + 4.75(M)
William Richardson 4.75(W)
Thomas Trollop 8(M)
John Shortrick 20(M) (or see Harrison)
George Lee 7.5(M)

Of the 450 acres, 131 are allocated to the successors of William Hodgson and Ralph Watson. This leaves 319 to be divided among the husbandmen. The most common rent is 19s 9d, so this probably represents an undivided tenement. Identifiable enclosure award allocations for people with rents in this region are 32, 16.5, 15, 22, 24, 22 a. 32 a is anomalously high; the rest average about 20 a. The actual allocations may take account of the quality of the land, but the average is nevertheless rather low. A value somewhat more than a typical virgate of 24 a would have been expected.

Henry Richardson's purchase in 1601 was for his own lands (3 tenements), William Harrison's (1 tenement) and William White's (half a tenement?). This puts the unit price of a tenement at about 70 pounds.

In 1639, Jerrard Salvin held lands acquired from Henry Richardson (3 tenements), the Highes (1.5 tenements, including White's) and Richard Harrison (1.5 tenements, via John and Hugh Harrison). However, he received only 64 a, much less than the 120 a expected for 6 tenements. If Richard and John Harrison's land went to Shortrick, it would account for 20 a of the difference. Might the remaining discrepancy imply that Henry Richardson's tenement was a double rather than a triple, and that his rent was in part for a larger than usual house?

The awards to Trewhett and Fetherstonhalgh (46 a total) are also much smaller than would be implied by either their fee farm rent or the purchase price of 330 pounds. This supports the idea that William Hodgson's rent was in large part for a house.

Michael Pemberton's award of 85 a corresponds to about 4 tenements, which is reasonably consistent with the fee farm rent of 73s 2d. The purchase price of 460 pounds will have included the detached closes named in Hombertson's Survey. However, it is odd that these should have been rent-free in Neville times if they were assarts. Perhaps these were the demesne lands?

The purchase price of 31 pounds paid for the set of four small tenements seems very low, and perhaps supports the idea that these were cottages rather than shares of virgates. However, the enclosure award to Barbara Colman suggests that even these had some land in the common fields.

William Richardson bought "all that seat house or cottage late in the ??? of Thomas Mayson with a garth on the backside thereof ..." from Henry Richardson in 1620 for 17 pounds, and this might be the origin of his entitlement to 4.75 a here.

Thomas Highe's purchase price is oddly less that Henry Sidgwick's. Perhaps the mill was included in the sale to Sidgwick (but had been in Highe's rent). This might explain the discrepancy between the Highe rents in Homberston's Survey (29/2d) and the deed (19/2d) (if the latter is correct, which needs checking - both the 1607 and 1629 surveys give 29/2d). But note that Thomas Highe bought the tenement that had been William White's from Robert Richardson in 1605.

Ralph Dunn had land from Geoffrey Freville and possibly from John Young.

John Willie had land from Peter Wright, but had sold some to Ralph Fewler.

Ralph Fewler had bought a tenement from Roger Harrison (William Harrison in 1570, from Bayning to Robert Richardson and on to Roger Harrison) and from John Willie in June 1639 (5 months before the award).

The Protestation of 1642

Surtees Society vol. 135 contains lists by township of people who took the Parliamentary Protestation in February and March 1641-2. The Protestation was required of "the inhabitants of [ ] Parishes, both householders and others, being of eighteen years of age and upwards". It seems to have been required only of men. The wording was designed to make it unacceptable to Catholics, but in practice a large majority of the population took it, including many who were otherwise recusant: around 97% for County Durham as a whole, if the number who are actually listed as refusing it is taken at face value.

The list for Tudhoe (p. 77) is:

Tho. Dowthwaite, Ra. Trewthitt, Jo. Dowthwaite, Henry Sidgwick, Willm. Jackson, Geo. Lee, Willm. Coleman, Richard Walker, Mathew Hawell, Xpofer Heuiside, Geo. Sparke, Cuthbt. Rawe, Jo. Richeson, Henry Beckfeild, sen., Henry Beckfeild, jun., Geo. Lilburne, Richard Steedman, Dennis Carter, Robt. Horner, Ralph Dunn, Robt. Sparke, Henry Foster, Tho. Foster, Robt. Corner, Willm. Readhead, jun., Raphe Bierley, Willm. Bierley, Jo. Willey, Rowland Corner, Tho. Ewbanke, Jo. Sparke, Tho. Walker, Cuthbt. Glenn, Jo. Lackenby, Jo. Lashe, Jo. Brack, Todderick Barker, Jo. Wilson, Tho. Harper, Willm. Richardson, Geo. Jackson, Michaell Jackson, Robt. Carr, John Liddell, Willm. Aude, Michaell Norman, Willm. Bell, Ambrose Bell (48).

Jo. Briggs and Thos. Grynwell, who might be of Tudhoe, are among the churchwardens.

Those who refused the Protestation are given for Brancepeth parish as a whole, and not assigned to townships. The 21 names include two who can be assigned to Tudhoe on the basis of Recusants' Rolls:
John Potter and Jo. Sidgwick

Notable disappearances from the 1639 Enclosure Award are John Shortrick and Michael Wheatley. A John Shortricke took the Protestation in St. Oswald's parish (under Broome, Beere Parke, Fenkolne and Rellye) and this is probably the right person because "widow Shortrigg of Broome" appears as a landowner in 1673. When did Michael Wheatley die?

Witnesses to 1648 land sale

D/Sa/D 1185 is a sale from Robert Wren of Tudhoe and Anne Wren, daughter of John Willie to John Briggs of Tudhoe. It is witnessed by William Bierlay, Thomas Thirkell, John Sidgwick the elder, Thos. Brown, John Sidgwick, John Richardson and Thomas Foster.

Book of Rates for 1650

There is a Book of Rates for the whole of County Durham in Vol. 8 of the Mickleton-Spearman MS (Palace Green) "as it was setled in 1650". However, it seems likely that the document itself is later, perhaps from 1693.

Tudhoe appears briefly under Merrington Parish (not Brancepeth). There is very little detail. The only landowners mention are [Col.] Alured (check this), [Mr.] Dikes and Mr. Smithson. The usual global figure of `24 8s 9d appears (check the figure). There is an entry for the colliery, valued at 2s [per year].

1655 list of freeholders

D/Sa/E 976 is an agreement between the freeholders of Tudhoe to pursue their legal claim to the Tudhoe Colliery. It lists:

Jarr Salvin, William Fetherstonhalgh, Jo Morland for John Sidgwick, Henry Sidgwick (his mark), William Bierlay, Richard Byers (his mark), Ralph Dunn (his mark), John Richardson, John Sparke, John Brack (his mark), Ralph Trewhet (his mark), Katherine Sparke (her mark), Margt Wheatley (her mark).

Those absent from the 1639 enclosure award (16 years before) are John Briggs, George Jackson, Ralph Fewler, Barbara Colman, William Richardson, Thomas Trollop, John Shortrick, George Lee. Fewler has gone by 1655, and the Jacksons sold most or all their land in 1641 and 1648. Barbara Colman, William Richardson and George Lee may be gone too, and had small holdings anyway. Thomas Trollop was definitely associated with the colliery. However, John Shortrigg and Sarah Briggs are listed in 1662; are they associated with the colliery too? In 1652, the sons of Thomas Trollope deceased and John Briggs sold some lands near Butcher Race to Thomas Brown (D/Sa/D 862), and in 1662, William Trollop of Crosgate, gent, Katharine his wife, and John Briggs of Tuddoe sold for 92 pounds to Clement Wilkinson of Crosgate (in trust for William Wilkinson of Crosgate) twelve acres in the town fields "on the north side of the said town of Tuddoe commonly called or known by the name of Alburnes" and one acre in the town "commonly called or known by the name of Paddocks".

Land Tax 1662

The Land Tax return of December 1662 (D/Sa/E 860) lists Rack Rent, King's Rent and Welling Farm Rent for each landowner. The King's rent figures appear to be the same as the fee farm rents from 1629, though much has changed hands since.


December 11th 1662
Tuddow

this Townshipp pays an out Rent of 30 li for Hay Silver to the Parson at Branspeth and all the Tyths in Kind

A true estimate of every particular Mans Estate in the Township of Tiddow in the Parish of Branspeth according to Rack Rent new Booke of Rates; Fee Farme Kings Rent to the King & Welling Farme Rent to the Deane and Chapter of Durham.
Kings Rent
The Rack Rent Booke of Rates Fee Farm Rent Welling Farm Rent
l: s: d: s: d: f: l: s: d: s: d: f
Mr Salvin 70:00:00 14:01:02 05:12:03x 4:05:0
Mr Fetherstonhalgh 25:00:00 05:02:03 03:02:03 00:08:03
Mr John Sidgwick 75:00:00 15:08:00 04:13:02:ob 05:03:00
Henry Sidgwick Land & Mill 24:00:00 04:07:03 02:10:06 01:01:00
Henry Trewhitt 19:00:00 03:09:03 02:03:04 00:07:03
John Richardson 13:10:00 02:09:00 00:15:10 01:01:00
Ralph Dunn 08:13:04 01:09:03 00:14:00 01:00:00
William Byerly 16:03:04 03:04:00 01:02:11 00:11:00
Martin Nicholson 06:10:00 01:04:00 00:06:08 01:03:00
John Shortrigg 11:00:00 02:03:00 00:13:04 00:06:05
John Brack 04:10:00 00:11:00 00:05:08 00:09:00
Widdow Browne 03:00:00 00:07:00 00:02:02 00:03:00
Willm Wilkinson 05:00:00 00:11:03 00:07:06 00:08:00
Richard Willson 02:10:00 00:06:01 00:00:06 00:00:00
Sarah Briggs 02:00:00 00:04:04 00:00:00 00:00:00
3 wheate corne
Thomas Richardson 00:10:00 00:01:02 00:00:03x 00:00:00
Michaell & Willm Wheateley 00:11:00 00:01:02 1 lb of pepper 00:06:00
Thomas Thirkeald 00:05:00 00:00:04 00:00:00 00:00:00
Widdow Richardson 03:00:00 00:07:03 00:08:06 00:00:00
Widdow Sparke 01:10:00 00:04:00 00:02:11 00:00:00
Francis Heighington 01:13:04 00:04:00 00:03:09 00:09:00
Francis Card 02:00:00 00:05:00 00:02:06 00:00:00
Thomas Harper 00:06:08 00:00:05 00:01:06 00:00:00
Christopher Rickson 00:05:00 00:00:03 00:00:04 00:00:00
John Sparke 02:05:00 00:05:03 00:06:08x 00:00:00
Richard Byers 08:00:00 01:07:00 00:16:07 00:00:00
Hen Jackson & Nich Fishburn 00:10:00 00:01:00 00:00:00 00:00:00
John Wheatley 03:10:00 00:08:04 00:07:06 00:02:02
-------- -------- -------- --------
Willm Readhead Rack Rent 310:02:8 03:04:02 24:18:7ob 20:00:05
:10s Book Rates: 1s Kings Rent310:02:8 03:03:0? 24:18:7ob
with my favour: 0:
The fayre coppy of this was delivered in to the Deputy Lieutenants att Durham the 12 of December (1662) according to the Rents & Booke of Rates of this here Townshipp in the ????. Willm Readheads Close was only left out

?? Rate crossd ?? this only to be deducted

It was signd by Hen Sidgwick Ra: Dunn and the 2 Constables Jo Briggs & Willm Willson


The totals are correct for the Rack Rent and King's Rent. The Booke of Rates and the Welling Farm Rent are reckoned in shilling, pence and (probably) twelfths.

By 1662, Ralph Salvin owned lands from Henry Richardson (57/8d), William White (9/2d), John Highe (29/2d) and Richard Harrison (27/2d). In addition, it seems likely that he had acquired lands valued at 7/6d from Henry Trewhitt (see below). The total comes to 19s too much (though there are indications elsewhere that the lands sold to the Highes were valued at only 19/2d, in which case the discrepancy is only 9s. 19s almost matches the extra holdings of Henry Sidgwick or the combined holdings of John Shortrigg and Martin Nicholson. The most likely explanation is that Shortrigg had acquired 19s worth of Highe/Harrison lands before Salvin bought the rest.

John Sidgwick has the Watson/Pemberton lands (73/2d) and another 20/- (including land from William Harrison 19/9d via Ralph Fewler).

Henry Trewhett has 10/3d less than in 1629. He sold some land to John Browne in 1661 (2/2d?)), and some more to Ralph Salvin in 1662 (the remaining 8/1d?).

Mr Fetherstonhalgh has added 8/8d to his holdings since 1629.

Henry Sidgwick has his own original lands (30/6d) and another 20/-. Was 10s of this for the mill?

Ralph Dunn (14/- here) replaces Awlde (16/6d in 1570) and Dunn (16/6d in 1629). Francis Card might be a candidate for the other 2/6d.

Brack and Heighington (Butcher Race) add to 9/7d: would this have been included at all in earlier figures?

John Sparke has 6/8d here and Widdow Sparke (presumably Katherine) 2/11d; compare John Sparke 10/- and Radus Sparke 19/9d in 1629: it looks as though John Sparke has sold land with rent 3/2d.

William Byerley has added 3/2d to his holdings since 1629: this probably corresponds to land he bought from John Sparke in 1648.

Richard Biers has 8/1d more here than Michael Biars Sigiswick in 1629. This isn't altogether convincing.

Others missing from 1570 and unattributed here are Duckett/Harrison 9/2d, Colman 4/6d, Wheatley 5/6d, Jackson 26/6d.

Hearth Tax 1664-73

The enrolled Hearth Tax returns just give names and numbers, but more detailed information is available for 1667 (D/Sa/E 882), 1668, 1669, 1670 and 1673 (D/Sa/E 883-890).
1667
1664 1665 1666 Henry Trewhitt 3
Ralph Dunn two Tho Walker 1/4 Will Readhead 1 Richard Willson 2
Tho Walker two Radi Dunn 1/4 Jo Brack 1 Henry Sidgwick 2
Will Byerley Jo Bracke 1 Francis Heighington 1 Emry Richardson 1
Jo Sparke Fran Heighington 1 Henry Trewitt 3 Anthony Harpe 1
Tho Dick Wm Barley 1/4 Henry Sidgwick 2 Thomas Dawson 1
Jo Atkinson two Tho Jackson 1 Thomas Rawe 1
Matthew ... one Robt Sparke 1 Thomas Harper 1
Jo ... three Tho Pickering 1 Christopher Rickeson
Hen Trewitt three Jo Atkinson 1 William Bell 1
Rich Willson two Nich Fishburne 1 Roger Turpin 1
Henry Sidgewick one Geo Iley 1 [hole in paper] John Richardson 2
Henry Richardson one Mich Norman 1 George Richardson 1
Jo. Richardson two Hen Jackson 1 Sarah Briggs Widdow 1
Will Richardson one Jos Wheatley 1 John Brack 1
Fran Heighington one Hen Trewhit 1 Francis Heighington 1
Jo. Bracke one Rich Wilson 1 Will A 1 Willm Readhead 1
Hen. Jackson one Tho Raw 1 ... Turping 1 Ralph Dunn 2
Geo. Iley one Jo Briggs 1 ... Richardson 2 John Attkinson 2
Nick Fishburne one Jo Parkes 1 Sarah Briggs 1 Willm Byerley 5
Tho Jackson one Ambr Bell 1 Jo Atkinson 2 Ellinor Jackson Widdow 2
Robt Sparke one Mary Allen 1 Will Byerley 3 John Sparke 1
Sara Briggs one ... Poole 1 Will Byerley 2 James Ellinor 1
Anne Widdifield one Geo Sidgwick 1 Ellinor Jackson 2 Thomas Pickering 1
Antho Harper one .... 1 Jno Sparke 1 Mr Ra: Salvin 4
Jane Richardson one Tho Wheatley 1 Tho Pickering 1 Nicholas Fishburne 1
Will Wilson one Hen Sidgewick 4 Nicho Fishburne 1 George Iley 1
Hen Richardson 1 Geo [Iley?] 1 Thomas Walker 1
... Harper 1 Tho Walker 1 Henry Jackson 1
Tho Dowson 1 Henry Jackson 1 John Wheatley 1
Wm Row 1 Jno Wheatley 1
Tho Taylor 1 Geo Richardson 1
Tho Harper 1 Ralph Dunn 2
Chrisfor Richardson 1 Ralph Salvin Gent. 2
Anne Whitfield 1
Kath Sparke 1
Wm Willson 1
Jo. Richardson 4
Geo. Richardson 1
Sara Bridge 1
Wm Readhead 1
Jo Sparke {Bracke?] 1
---
4?

The enrolled hearth tax records also include lists of "non-solvents", who didn't pay.

For 1663, all I have found in E179/106/21 is the list of non-solvents: Michael Trewhitt 1, William Readhead 1, William Normond 2, Francis Heighington 2.

For 1666, the list of non-solvents contains 32 names in addition to those listed above: Dorothy Ford, Ann Walker, Ruth Browne, Alice Poole, Hen Ellery, ?? ?oox, ??? Richison, Roger Turping, Hen Richardson, Mary Allen, John Briggs, He ?ofer, John ??, Jane Readhead, Ambrose Bell, Robt Sparke, Jane Wilson, Margt Horner, Geo Kirkely, Tho Thirkly, James Elnigor, John Sidgwicke, Martin Harper, Rich Smith, ??? Ellery, Tho Browne, John Fether, John Gill, Wm Row, Hen Wheatley, M??? Wheatley, Willm Wheatley.

The original return of non-solvents for 1667 is available.

[Note: the hearth tax lists are enrolled by ward: Tudhoe was then in Darlington Ward, south-east division, though I think it subsequently became part of the nort-west division.]

Who lived where in 17th-century Tudhoe?

Good-quality (local) Hearth Tax returns are available for 1667, 68, 69, 70 and 73, but only enrolled returns of much poorer quality for 1664, 65, 66. The 1673 Hearth Tax return labels houses as "East Rawe" and "West Rawe", with a few outliers labelled "Butcher Race" and "Watergate". Comparing successive lists suggests that the ordering reflects position along the green, and allows reasonable guesses to be made about changes in occupation. I have followed the lists backwards to 1664, and then made a long extrapolation to the list of tenants for 1570. Some of the links between 1570 and the 1660s can probably be firmed up when the deeds are studied in more detail.

Owners are given in brackets; where none is given, the owner is unknown or (more often) the occupier owned it. Poorer people were exempted from the tax, so many small houses are probably missed completely.

The rental figures from 1570, fee farm rents from 1629 and King's Rent figures from 1662 are also included where possible.

Quite a lot of the map is conjectural, based on questionable assumptions about the continuity of surnames for each house.


Wm Hodgson 1570 (107/2d);
Coldstream (?):
Henry Trewthet -1587-1629 (1607, 1629, 53/7d);
Ralph Trewthet 1629-61;
Henry Trewhitt 1661-73 (43/4d)
Possibly John Thursby -1561;
William Iley 1561-;
John Willie, John Briggs;
John Morland 1663-5;
John Sidgwick 1665-;
rented by Thomas Jackson, 1664,66
and/or Robt Sparke 1664,70 (whose?)
(Fetherstone 1607, 1629 53/7d, 1662 62/3d)
Richard Willson 1663-73 (not 66?)
Henry Wheatley 1670 White House Farm?
Henry Siggiswick (30/6d) 1570;
George Siggiswick 1587-1629-;
Henry Sidgwick 1663-73 (50/6d), 1684 (but listed elsewhere in 1666!)
Emmerius Whetley 1570
John Wheatley 1607, 1629 (7/6d);
John Wheatley 1662 (7/6d);
John Wheatley 1663-73.
The two Wheatley houses were bought by William Willson some time after 1673; he died in 1686, leaving them to his sons John, Thomas, Humphrey Wilson. John Highe 1570 (29/2d);
Thomas Highe 1587-1637;
sold to Jerrard Salvin.
Henry Richardson 1664-5;
Emry Richardson 1667;
John Harper 1668;
"new room at south end" 1668;
William Willson 1669-73 (RS)
Humfrey Jackson 1570
Will Jackson 1607, 1629 (26/6d);
Henry Jackson 1664-70; HJ's widow mentioned in margin of 1673 return
Margret Byers 1570;
Michael Biars 1607;
Michael Biars Sigiswick 1629 (8/6d)
might be here or anywhere.
They might be the same as
Richard Biers 1662 (16/7d);
Mich Norman 1666;
Thomas Walker 1668-73 (Byers);
William Whight 1570, 1607 (9/2d);
(Robert Richardson 1600-05);
??? Thomas or Margaret Harryson 1629
Thomas Highe and Robert Shortered 16??-1632;
Thomas Highe 1632-37;
sold to Jerrard Salvin.
Anthony Harper 1667-8:
William Willson rented it 1669-, but probably lived next door. Perhaps same as empty house listed for Richard Haward 1670?; Henry Hillery 1673 (RS)
George Iley 1663-73;
Raiph Bowran 1690 (Rich Willson).
William Duckett 1570, 1607 (?);
Probably William Harrison 1600,
then Margaret Harryson 1629 (9/2d)
Nicholas Fishburne 1664-90 (1662, 0/-) Dunn's Croft (36) (?)
Tudhoe House:
John Colman 1570;
Nicholas Colman 1607 (?);
Thomas Coleman 1629 (4/6d)

These might correspond to the cottages opposite the hall in 1690-1730: perhaps
Thomas Dawson 1665,67 (Widd Rich)
Tudhoe Hall
Henry Richardson 1570 (57/8d);
Robert Richardson 1579-1609;
Robert Richardson 1607 (57/8d);
Henry Richardson 1609-1622;
(Ralph Young and Richard Jackson 1622-1629, mortgage?);
Henry Richardson 1629 (57/8d);
Jerrard Salvin 1629 onwards (1662, 112/3d).
Jo. Atkinson (?) 1664-65;
not listed 1666;
Ralph Salvin 1667-73
William Rawe 1665;
Thomas Rawe 1667-70 (Bracke)

Thomas Taylor 1663-73 (Browne)

Thomas Harper 1665-68 (his own, 1/6d)
Antho Harper 1670-73 (labourer) (pd in 1673 but added in margin (his own) rather than in ordered list. This is probably the cottage that RS bought from AH ca. 1685, D/963-6)

Christopher Rickeson 1662 (0/4d);
Christopher Richardson 1665;
Christopher Rickeson 1667;
Henry Hillery (T Hillery) 1673
Lane Croft (7)
William Harryson 1570 (19/9d);
(Robert Richardson 1600, then sold to Roger Harrison in 1601);
William Harrison 1607 (but WH died in 1605?);
Roger Harrison 1629 (19/9d);
Ralph Fewler (Newcastle) 1628-47;
Sidgwick 1647-;
perhaps the same as:
Thomas Pickering 1664-73 (yeoman) (Sidg)
William Harrison, John, Raphe and Roger Wheatley and John Colman (labourers) bought their cottages and lands in 1601. Another document mentions Thomas Wheatley. The subsequent ownership is complicated, but some passed via Sparke to RS in 1658. Wheatley's Close (186)
Emmery Whetley 1570, 1607;
Ralph Wheatley 1629 (5/6d)
(There may not have been a house here)
James Ellinor 1665-67;
Jarrard Walker 1668-73 (Shortridge)
Salkeld's Garth (7a)
William Bullock 1570;
John Sparke 1629 (10/-), 1662 (6/8d);
John Sparke 1664-67;
Ralph Dunn 1668-73 (J Sparke)
Pickering's Garth (183a)
Richard Herryson 1570, 1607;
John (or Hugh?) Harryson 1629 (27/2d)
Sold to Jerrard Salvin 1632 (occ. Humphrey Foster).
These are probably the same as:

William Bell 1667; rebuilt 1667;
James Ellinor 1670-73 (RS)
Readhead's Garth (43)
John Sparke 1570, 1607;
Ralph Sparke 1629 (19/9d)
Hunters Close (183)
(Watson 1570, Pemberton, Sidgwick)
Thomas Jackson 1665; Ellinor Jackson 1666-67; John Allen 1673 (Sidg) Several cottages here in 1839
Roger Turpin 1664-73 (RS)
The old seat house:
Burns Croft (40)

Raphe Bierley 1570
Ralph Bierley 1587-1629 (19/9d);
William Byerley 1664-65 (1662, 22/11d);
Two William Byerleys (yeomen) 1667-79;
+Thomas Byerley 1673
Ratten Row (46)
(Watson 1570, Pemberton, Sidgwick;
but also John and Peter Richardson)
South Farm (?)
Ralph Watson 1570;
Michael Pemberton 1607, 1629 (73/2d);
John Pemberton "to farm" 1612-42, 42-43;
William Sidgwick 1643-??;
John Sidgwick 16??-1712)
This land probably includes:
South Garth (66) (?)
Emery Richardson 1570;
Poss William Richardson 1573-1606;
John Richardson 1607, 1629 (15/10d)
John Richardson 1664-1673 (15/10d)
Thomas Walker 1664-5;
John Atkinson 1667-73 (Sidg)
Emery Richardson (husb) 1668-73 (Sidg)
George Richardson 1668-73 (Sidg)
Sarah Briggs 1664-73
Wellings Green (29a) or Black Horse Farm
Johanna Awlde 1570 (16/6d)
George Freville -1602;
Ralph Dunn; 1602- (1607, 1629, 16/6d; 1662, 14/-);
George Richardson 1665-67 (Widd. Dunn's);
Ann Dunn 1668.
These and Sarah Briggs are listed before Butcher Race and Watergate in these years, suggesting East Row not West (or maybe not really in either row).
(Ann Dunn sold a property to John Sedgwick in 1667 (Ettricke): this may be it.)
Thomas Walker and Ralph Dunn were first in the (enrolled) list in 1664-5. Were they somewhere else, even outside the village itself?
Butcher Race: Watergate:
John Brack 1664-73 (5/8d) William Readhead 1666-73
Francis Heighington 1664-73 (3/9d) John Readhead 1668-73

1668 list of recusants, including Brancepeth

Papists: William Swinburne, gent; Matthew Swinburne, gent; Tho Salvin, gent; Will Colson, gent; Tho Conyers, gent; Lady Hodgson; Mrs Bridgett Foster; Robert Pattinson, husbandman, & his wife; Katharine ux Caroli Harkworth; Jo Young, weaver, & ux eius; Triphona uxor Jo Hinde; Katharine Hinde, spinster; Tho Pickering, jun, yeoman; George Hawick, glover & ux eius; George Mason, smith & ux eius; Jo Vincent, thatcher, & ux eius; Charles Vincent, labourer, & his wife; Mary Vincent, spinster; Eliz Gaire and Ellioner Gaire, spinsters; Will Bierley, sen, and Will Bierley, jun, yeomen; Jo Briggs, labourer; Emmery Richardson, husbandman, & his wife; Alice Horman; Jo Sidgwick, labourer; Anna Sidgwick; Rich Smith, labourer; Matthew Harper, labourer, & his wife; Antho Harper, labourer, & his wife; Jo Fletcher, labourer, & his wife; Will Wheatley, weaver, & his wife; Jane Linley; Tho Dawson, labourer, & his wife; Jane Richardson; Geo Iley, labourer; Will Marley, mason, & his wife; Jo Friend, husbandman, Geo Young, weaver, & his wife; Timothy Arcle, smith, and wife; Lancelot Fawson; Rich Hedley, labourer, & his wife; Marg Grenwell; Petronella Tayler; Anth Mills, husbandman; Michael Hedley & his wife; Hen Richardson, husbandman, & his wife; Marg Dunn; Ralph Salvin, gent; Marg Byers.

Quakers: Peter Mason, Hen Mason, Peter Mason, Hen Emmerson, weaver, James Fuister & his wife, Eliz Fuister, Isabell Emmerson, Robt Tayler, weaver, Ann Tayler

Anabaptists: Geo Fuister, weaver, & his wife, John Crooke, Rob Grenwell yeom & his wife, Will Grenwell, Anne Hodgson

Mr Rob Lever, a puritanical Minister
John Robinson, a puritan

Land tax assessments

D/Sa/E 860-879 include land tax assessments for 1662, 1667-73, 1699 and 1785. I have copies of them, which I will transcribe here when I have time.

Book of Rates for 1670

There is a Book of Rates for the whole of County Durham in 1670 in Vol. 8 of the Mickleton-Spearman MS (Palace Green).

Tudhoe appears briefly under "Constableries of Tudhoe and Sunderland Bridge", with no parish affiliation. About 10 of the major landowners are listed, but the list is far from complete. There is an entry for the colliery, valued at `2 [per year].

1671 tithe list

D/Sa/E 973 reads (in one column, but run on here)

Abstract Tudhoe Tythe

Hen Trewhett 0.5.0; Rich Willson 5.0.0; Henry Sidgwick 3.5.0;
John Brack 1.0.0; James Ellinor 0.5.0; Roger Turpin 1.5.0;
John Richardson 1.0.0; Mary Richardson and Thomas Wood 1.0.0;
Willm and John Readhead 0.15.0; Emery Richardson and George 3.0.0;
John Attkinson 4.0.0; The two Willm Byerleys 3.5.0; John Sparke 0.5.0;
Jarrard Walker 1.18.0; Thomas Pickering 1.15.0; Ralph Salvin 1.7.0;
Anthony Harp and Christopher Rickeson 0.5.0;
John Mitchell and William Wheatley 0.5.0; Willm Willson 3.5.0
In toto 33.0.0
Anno. 1671

1673 list of freeholders

A perfect schedule of all the freeholders names and estates in the Constablery and Townshipp of Tudhoe. April 22th 1673.

84.0.0 Imprimis Mr. Jo: Sidgwick of Elvett in the Citty of Durham
6.13.4 Item Mr. Anthony Salvin of Croxdale
30.0.0 Item Mr. Henry Fetherstonhalgh of Stanley
6.0.0 Item Martin Nicholson of Willington
7.6.8 Item Richard Byars Heires of Branspeth
3.13.4 Item Mr. William Wilkinson of the Citty of Durham Merc.
9.0.0 Item Widdow Shortrigg of Broome the land hers for her life; and her sonn Peter Shortrigg; who lives at or about London; her ??? ????
2.3.4 Item Elizabeth Browne of Sunderland Briggs her land for her life; her sonn George next heire
79.0.0 Item Mr. Ra: Salvin of Tudhoe
19.0.0 Item Henry Sidgewick of the same
2.6.8 Item Henry Trewhitt of the same
16.0.0 Item William Byerlay of the same senr. & junr.
14.0.0 Item John Richardson of the same
2.3.4 Item John Sparke of the same
4.10.0 Item George Sidgewick of Helm Park
2.3.4 Item John Brack of Butcher Race House
2.3.4 Item Francis Heighington of Butcher Race
2.3.4 Item Sarah Briggs of Tudhoe Widd: her lands for her life; and her sonn Jo: Briggs her heire
2.3.4 Item Ann Card of Durhm: Widdow & relict of Francis Card deceased; And the heire it appears is a child and under age; their land
2.6.8 Item Richard Willson of Tudhoe
2.3.4 Item John Wheatley of the same
In toto 299.0.0

1684 list of freeholders

The list needs transcribing: my early notes indicate only that it includes Ra Salvin, Anth Salvin, Ff Fetherstonhalgh, Richard Willson (his mark), Henry Sidgwick, William Willson (his mark), and another William Willson (who signed his name).

1696 Marriage Duty Tax

D/Sa/E 962-4 are three similar (but not identical) copies of a remarkable house-by-house list of all the residents of the township and constablery of Tudhoe in 1695-6. It lists 233 people, in 49 households, with each householder (and a few older sons) classified: 1 gentleman, 4 yeomen, 12 farmers, 8 labourers, 2 milners, 1 meal-maker, 1 blacksmith, 1 whitesmith, 1 weaver, 2 tailors, 2 masons, 1 butcher. 11 households are listed as receiving the Church Alms.

Window Tax 1697-1703

It is useful to place the Window Tax returns for 1697, 1702 and 1703 side-by-side to see developments. The 1697 assessment appears to give actual numbers of (glazed) windows, while the later ones just give the amount paid. It looks as though houses with 2-9 windows paid 2/-, those with 11-19 paid 6/-, and the one house with 20 windows paid 10/-.

1697 old 1702 1703
cass fur
Mr Ralph Salvin 20 20 0-10 Mr Ralph Salvin 00-10Mr Ralph Salvin 00-10
Tho Anderson 3 3 0-2 Thomas Anderson 00-02Thomas Anderson 00-02
Ralph Byers 4 4 0-2 Wheatly 00-02Henry Wheatley 00-02
Geo Geobling 5 10 0-6
Nich Fishburne 4 5 0-2 Nicklas Fishburn 00-02Nicolas Fishburn 00-02
John Willson 10 14 0-6 John Willson 00-06John Willson 00-06
Hen Willson 10 10 0-6 Henry Willson 00-06Henry Willson 00-06
Hen Sidgwick 5 18 0-6 J..es Sidgwick 00-06James Sidgwick 00-06
Tho Willson 5 10 0-6 Thomas Willson 00-06Thomas Willson 00-06
Jarard Sparke 2 3 0-2 Jarrard Spa..e 00-02Jarrard Spark 00-02
Wm Bell (exempted) 2 2 0x2 Widd Bowran 00-06Widdoe Bowran 00-02
Robt Norman 2 3 0-2 Robart Normant 00-02Robert Norman 00-02
Emeri Richardson 6 7 0-2 Emry Richardson 00-02Emry Richardson 00-02
John Smith 7 8 0-2 John Smith 00-02John Smith 00-02
Wm Byerlaw (exempt)10 10 0-6 Raiph Dunn 00-06Ralph Dunn 00-06
Wm Allon 2 2 0-2 William Allon 00-02William Allon 00-02
Geo Pickering 5 6 0-2 George Pickering 00-02George Pickering 00-02
Ralph Bowering 10 11 0-6
John Redhead 3 4 0-2 John Readhead 00-02John Readhead 00-02
Edw Stronge 2 2 0-2 Peller Normant 00-02Peter Norman 00-02
Robt Cobleman 3 4 0-2 Thomas Biggins 00-02Thomas Biggins 00-02
Geo Richardson 6 9 0-2 George Richardson 00-03George Richardson00-03
John Richardson 4 6 0-2 John Richardson 00-03John Richardson 00-03
-4-2 William Bell 00-02William Bell 00-02
George Joplin 00-02George Joplin 00-02
Thomas Catton 00-02Thomas Catton 00-02
John Dunn 00-02John Unthank 00-02
Geo Richardson John Unthank 00-02John Dunn 00-02
John Richardson Assess Totall .4-02Totall 04-02
Geo Geobling John Dunn Ralph Dunn
Jarrard Spark Coll John Unthank Coll Thomas Biggins Coll

This seems to be pretty conclusive evidence that Ralph Dunn moved into William Byerley's house (i.e. the seat house) between 1697 and 1702, and that Ralph Salvin's house was different.

It seems that Henry Sidgwick was extending his house in 1697 (or glazing previously unglazed windows, but it's a bit late for that), and then was succeeded by James Sidgwick.

The differences between this listing and the Hearth Tax list are too great to make mappings with much confidence. However, one sequence that is fairly compelling is:

It is possible that these lists start at the Hall (Ralph Salvin) and go clockwise around the village: an interesting shift of focus since 1673. If so, perhaps Nicholas Fishburne had not moved, but Anderson, Byers and Jobling had moved into the space between him and the Hall. Alternatively, perhaps Ralph Byers had moved into the house previously rented out by Richard (?) Byers.

Land Tax 1699

The Booke of Raits of the Township of Tuddoe (D/Sa/E 874)
s-d-fod
Mr. Ralph Salvins Land 17-10-00
Mr. Will Aytricks Land Emery Richardson Tent 04-00-00
George Richardson Tent 04-00-00
George Pickering Tent 06-05-00
John Smith Tent 03-02-00
Mrs. Featherston's Land Hen: Willson Tent 05-10-03
Henry Willson's Land 00-10-03
Henry Sedgwick's Land 03-09-00
James Sedgwick's Land and Mill 01-03-01
John Willson's Land 02-00-04
Will Allon's Land 00-01-02
Emery Richardson's Land 00-09-00
John Richardson's Land 02-09-00
Mrs. Whartons Land George Richardson t 01-04-00
Mr. Willkeson's Land 00-11-03
Peter Shortrigg's Land 02-03-00
Ralph Byers his Land 01-07-00
George Brown Butchar Race 01-02-00
John How's Land 00-04-00
Jane Willson's Land 00-02-00
Mr. Anthony Salvin's Land for Cold Strems 01-08-00
for Catton's House & garth 00-01-00
John Youngers Land 00-05-00
Ann Unthank's Land 00-04-04
Will Scurfold's Land 00-04-00
George Wood's Land 00-01-00
Mary Hillary 00-01-00
Atkinson & John Lakx 00-01-00
Edward Tailor Ralph Dunn Tent 00-01-00
Nicolas Fishburn 00-00-03
George Jopling 00-00-03
Margaret Rickeson 00-00-03
Will Wheatley's 00-00-01
--------
In All 3-03-03-03

Note that the amounts listed here (except the total) are in shillings, pence and twelfths.

List of recusants for 1705

Tony Coia's booklet gives the following list:

Ralph Salvin, 2 men servants, 4 women servants; Thomas Atkinson; Ann Kirkley and a child; Matthew Reah, wife, and 2 children; Thomas Thornberry; Robert Norman, wife, and daughter; Thomas Johnson; Thomas Catton, wife, and 3 children; Widow Richardson and 2 children; John Smith, wife, 3 children, 1 servant; Ralph Dunn, wife, 2 servants; John Dunn; George Dunn; Gerrett Dunn; Peter Crags, wife, 3 children; Widow Norman; Thomas Grinwell, wife, 3 children; Thomas Catton the younger; Richard Crooks, wife, 2 children; Widow Byerley and 2 children; William Byerley; William Griffin and wife; Margaret Gramshaw.

Estate Rentals

1717, Q/R/R/1

Ralph Salvin's declaration of his estate for the purpose of the tax on papist lands states annual rentals:

Capital messuage mansion house wherein I now dwell... L62 10s
Messuage and farm, Thomas Wilson, year to year, L52 10s
Messuage and farmhold, John Readhead, year to year, L36 10s
Messuage and farm, George Dunn, year to year, L19 17s
Messuage and farm, George Biggins, year to year, L8
Messuage and croft, Ralph Dunn, year to year, L7 10s
Messuage and farm, William Griffin, year to year, L4
[Entry starts off top of copied page] Thomas Harrison, lease 1 May 1715, 3 years, L45, including 8 pounds for land late belonging to Wm Ettricke
Messuage and farm, George Pickering, year to year, L48 10s, late WE

Cottage, John Dunn, L1 10s
Cottage, Ralph Hills, 20s
Cottage, Anne Langstaffe widow, 20s
Cottage or dwelling house, Peter Craggs, 20s
late part of the estate of the said WE

Cottage or dwelling house, Thomas Thornbury, 12s, late WE
Cottage or dwelling house, Eliz Kirkley spr, 12s,
Cottage or dwelling house, Ralph Colson, 10s,
Cottage or dwelling house, Isabell Pearson widow, 8s
Note all the above named cottagers are only tenants rom year to year

The said township also pays yearly for a crown rent to Philip Papilion Esquire twenty four pounds eight shilling nine pence two farthings my proportionable part thereof amounts to eight pounds seventeen shillings and six pence.

1723, from Coia

Tony Coia quotes a similar list from 1723, which includes all the 1717 names, in the same order but with (slightly) different rents. However, there are some extras in 1723, listed after Isabel Pearson:

Messuage with several closes and parcels of ground let to John Richardson, L40
Messuage and farm, Edward Crosby, L40
Messuage and farm, Richard Arrowsmith, L42

Where are these farms in the 1717 declaration? I don't think they were a new purchase between 1717 and 1723, because Edward Crosby's farm is specifically listed as part of the estate purchased from Wm Ettricke in John Dunn's list of 1755 below. It's just possible that WE retained a life interest in them, and died between 1717 and 1723.

1724-29, D/Sa/E 461

D/Sa/E 461 is Ralph Salvin's rent book: each farm is given half a page at the start of the book, and then a page later when that runs out. Some of the entries refer back before the start of the period itself. The half-yearly rentals are:

Thomas Wilson, 1719-27, 35/00 (still there in 1729, see below)
George Pickering, 1723-29, 27/10: tiling the barn mentioned
Edward Crosby, 1724-25, 30/00 (still there in 1729, see below)
John Readhead, 1719-27, 23/00
John Richardson, 1719-27, 25/00: "The house he lives in entered May 1727", thereafter 24/00 for the farm and 1/15 for the house
Widdow Harrison, 1725-29, 22/10: mentions Rogers Close (by Tudhoe Moor House)
Nathan Boyes, 1724-29, 30/15: York Hill House Farm
George Dunn, 1724-29, 9/10
Tho. Johnson, 1724-25, 4/06: "Memo: Tho Johnson went out of the tiled house in the Street May 1727".
In May 1727, "He enters on the house Jo. Rich", and in May 1729, "He goes to his own little house".
Tho. Biggins, 1724-9, 4/00: the two Spittle Deans (south of the Durham Road at the extreme east of the township)
Wm Wilson, 1724-26, 2/05: house and croft
Ralph Dunn, 1726-29, 4/05: house, gardens and garth
The lands I have in my own hands, 53/00 per annum.
Alice Foster, 1725-, 8/07/6: Great Beds piece and the High Car Close next the High Road. Enter May 1725. (This could be Car Close, south of Chair Lane, but is more likely High Carr Field, just south of Burns Croft on the west of the village).
Robert Darnton enters May 1729, 20/00 per annum.

A separate sheet describes John Readhead's farm:
Middle piece paster 31-3-13
Middle piece tilledge 12-2-36
Croft and house 1-1-29
Car Croft paster 15-2-0
Far Car Close paster 13-1-26

This seems to place John Readhead's farm on the east of the village. In 1839, North and South Far Carr were adjacent to the Middle Pieces, beyond Hunters Close and Ratten Row.

In this list, Thomas Biggins has succeeded George; Widdow Harrison has succeeded Thomas; Nathan Boyes is new; Wm Wilson may have succeeded Wm Griffin.

The Green Tree public house bears a date stone reading J P M 1725 (or possibly T P M). This probably represents JP and his wife MP. I wonder whether J P M was either John Mitchel or John Pickering?

1729, D/Sa/F 40

The (half-yearly) rentals payable by Ralph Salvin's tenants at the time of his death may be worked out from the payments listed on pp. 35-37: those marked (a) owed arrears when he died:

Thomas Willson 35/00/00 (though only 7/00/00 "remainder" listed here) (c.f. lease D/Sa/E 359 of 1719 and D/Sa/E 364 of 1729 (when?), the latter for a farm formerly in RS's possession. See also D/Sa/E 365, 1729)
Nathan Boyes (a) 33/05/00
Edward Crosby 30/00/00 (maybe more than one half year's) (c.f. lease D/Sa/E 361,363 of York Hill Farm in 1721)
George Pickering 27/16/00 (c.f. John Pickering in D/Sa/E 365 of 1729; note George Rowal also there)
John Richardson (a) 1/15/00 house rent, 24/00/00 farm rent (c.f lease D/Sa/E 360 of 1719)
Elizabeth Harrison 22/10/00 (c.f. lease D/Sa/E 358 of 1714 to Thomas Harrison)
George Dunn 9/10/00
Thomas Johnson (a) 2/10/00
William Willson 2/05/00
Ralph Hills (a) 1/00/00
William Darnton 0/10/00
Edward Hunt (a) 0/10/00
Thomas Thornberry 0/06/00
Robert Spark (a) 0/06/00
Ellioner Corser (a) 0/05/00

It looks as though Thomas Willson and George Dunn have not moved since 1717. George Pickering has also probably not moved, though he may have extended his farm. Elizabeth Harrison has succeeded Thomas Harrison. John Richardson and Edward Crosby have probably not moved. The lands held by Nathan Boyes (33.5), Thomas Johnson (2.10) and William Willson (2.5) don't appear to match those previously held by Richard Arrowsmith (21.0), John Readhead (18.5), George Biggins (4), Ralph Dun (3.15) and William Griffin (2), but perhaps those of Arrowsmith and Readhead have been combined to form Boyes's farm.

1738, D/Sa/E 458

Bryan Salvin's trusteeship accounts for his sons' estates record the leases on the Tudhoe farms, and there are other similar papers. D/Sa/E 458 is a rental of Bryan Jr.'s estates at Tudhoe for 1738. The largest farm is Thomas Wilson's (50/0/0 per half year). Other large farms are let to Ed Crosby (24/0/0), Tho Hunt (27/10/0), John Mitchel (33/5/0), Eliza Harrison (22/10/0), and Rob Foster (23/10/0).

The list is longer than this, and needs transcribing in full. If I have all the large farms, then as in 1729, there are six of them. Mitchel has apparently replaced Boyes (at the same rent), and Hunt and Foster have replaced Pickering and Richardson. Thomas Wilson's rental has increased from 35/0/0 per half year since 1719-26, which is consistent with him taking over the land farmed by Ralph Salvin himself in 1729.

Is this the Thomas Hunt who was Ralph Salvin's servant?

1743-4, D/Sa/E 177

Before taking up possession of Tudhoe, William Salvin seems to have made up a rental book that he never filled in. The half-pages are headed Tho. Wilson, Geo. Greenwell, Tho. Farmer, Edw. Crosby, Jon. Press, Eliz. Harrison, Jon. Pickering, Hen. Hutchinson, Mich. Hills, Jon. Dunn, Tho. Crosby, Jon. Dunn Jr., Ra. Dunn, Tho. Pickering, Rob. Brown (?).

1755, D/Sa/F 56.2

In June 1755, John Dunn made a valuation of the farms in the part of the estate that had been bought from William Ettricke. It contains comments that help identify the lands involved:

Geo Greenwell's farm: Wellings Green, Street Feild, Slaty Hill and Hunger Hole, Little Wellings called the 6 Acres, High Wellings: 33/0/6 [half the farm] (I think this is mostly along the Durham-Auckland road)

Wm Greathead's farm: Water gate, High Wellings: the large pasture, part taken of the High Wellings pasture, part taken of the High Wellings pasture above water gate, brick kiln croft called Johnson's Croft: 21/9/11 [half the farm]

Widdow Pickering's Farm wh. was T Hunts: all the farm except the Far Burn feild and the Wood End field (47/1/1)
The Scroggs exempted in Widow Pickering's farm [most of the farm]

Robert Wilsons farm: 4 Middle Peaces (20/4/11) [one fifth] (north of Durham Road at the extreme east of the township)

John Pickerings farm, now Geo Ayres: all the farm except the 2 Spittle Deans (29/5/3) (south of Durham Road at the extreme east of the township)

Edw Crosby farm: all the farm (45/13/9) (York Hill, but including land on both sides of the Auckland Road: see below)

Eliz Harrison's farm: the 2 high pastures (8/7/8) [a small part]

Henry Hutchinson's farm: Hunters Close (3/16/1)

Edward Salvin Esq: the croft taken of Edward Crosby's farm (2/5/6)
and a garth belonging Frank Hunts house now laid along with Burns Croft, that was Byerleys (0/15/0)

John Dunns farm Ratten Row (5/0/0)

Frank Hunts cottage (1/0/0)
Tho Thornberrys cottage (0/12/0)

in all 478/0/9

It should be remembered that this is the Ralph Watson / Pemberton / John Sidgwick estate, with additions bought from John Dunn (via Ralph Fewler) and Michael Wheatley (and who else?). Ratten Row and Hunters Close were Watson's in 1570. Taken together, the lands seem to form a block from Hunters Close east to Croxdale, from the edge of Burns Croft west to the Far Burn, and south from there to the road from Auckland to Durham (and beyond: York Hill Farm and the Spittle Deans).

1756, D/Sa/F 56

The lands claimed by William Salvin after Edward Salvin's death. The annual rentals are:

The capital messuage or tenement with stables gardings appurtenances thereunto belonging late in the possession of Edward Salvin Esq. deceased with the lands late in John Dunn possession and the lands and grounds part of Crosby's farm lying the north side of Auckland Rode and late in the possession of Edward Salvin decd. with the lands and tenements late in the possession of Henry Huchinson and now held by Matthew Corner for two years at the yearly from Mayday last at the yearly rent of 80/15(?).
Messuage and farms, now Eliz Harrison Widdow, lease 8 Jan 1754 for 6 years, L45
Messuage and farm, now Robert Wilson, lease 8 Dec 1755 for 6 years, L90
Messuage and farm, late John Pickring and now John Dunn, lease 8 Dec 1755 for 9 years, L37
Messuage and farm, late John Pickring and now Tho Richardson, lease 8 Dec 1755 for 9 years, L53
Messuage and farm, George Grenwell, lease 8 Dec 1755 for 6 years, L70
Messuage and farm, late Thos Press and now William Greathead, lease Mayday last for 6 years, L45
Messuage and farm, late Eadw Crosby in the South side of Auckland Rode and now Wm Clarke of Firehill, memorandum Mayday 1757 for 6 years, L28 10s
Messuage and farm, Richard Readhead, year to year, L8
Messuage and farm, Wm Pickring, year to year, late Th Crosby
Messuage and farm, late John Maw and now Wm Wilkinson, year to year, L4
Messuage house and garding, now Elex Sanderson, year to year, L3 10s
Cottage house, now John Robinson, year to year, 15 s
Cottage house, now John Burne, year to year, L1 s
Cottage house, now Sara Tayler, year to year, 16 s
Cottage house, now Francis Hunt, year to year, L1 s
Cottage house, now Thos Thornbrough, year to year, 12 s
Cottage house, now Michl Hills, year to year, 13 s
Cottage house called the School House in the possession of (blank), year to year, no rent given.

Elizabeth Harrison is still there, at the same rent. Edward Crosby's farm (York Hill) has been split up. Robert Wilson may have succeeded Thomas Wilson. Pickerings have disappeared, reappeared and disappeared again since 1738.

1758, D/Sa/E 461

D/Sa/E 461 is principally the rent book for 1724-29, but there is an entry for 1758 at the back:

Rental of Tuddo at Mayday 1758
Matt Corner -1760, 80/00
Eliz Harrison -1760, 45/00
John Dunn -1765, 37/00
Robt Wilson -1762, 90/00
Thos. Richardson -1762, 53/00
George Greenwell -1762, 70/00
Wm Greathead -1767, 45/00
Wm Clarke -1763, 28/10
Richd Readhead, yly, 8/00
Wm Pickering, yly, 8/00
Wm Wilkinson, yly, 4/00
Eliz Sanderson, yly, 3/10
Cottages: John Robinson, John Burn, Sara Taylor, Francis Hunt, Thos Thornbrough, Michal Hills

1762, D/Sa/E 173

A Rentall of Tuddo of all the Lands & Cottages Houses
Beginning at Mayday 1762

John Hull yearly rent 73/10/0
George Peckring 70/00/0
Wm Greathead 45/00/0
John Dunn 43/00/0
Mattw Corner 121/00/0
George Smurthwate 102/00/0
Richd Readhead 8/00/0
Thos Greenwell, a house 1/06/0
Henry Hutchinson, a garth 3/00/0
John Hunter, a close 4/00/0
Ths Johnson, a house 18/0
Francis Hunt, a house 1/00/0
Francis Jacks, a house 12/0
Robt Burn, a house 1/00/0
John Robinson, a house 15/0
John Shan, a house 12/0
Mr Egleston, a house 3/00/0
Wm Thomson, a house 12/0

Total 479/05/0

1764, D/Sa/E 173

Tuddo Rentalls to begin at Mayday 1764

Wm and John Henderson for High Yorks Hill he finds his own lime & tyed to 2 lod upon every acre of his fallow ground 70/00/0
Mathw Corner 109/00/0
The Scroggs and three Low Feilds to Cudbart Dods to pay all seses bar Land Tax 010/00/0
John Hixon to pay all taxes bar Land Tax & he to find straw for his thack houses 022/10/0
George Pickring 70/00/0
Wm Great Head 45/00/0
John Dunn Burns Croft 6 li to be added to his farm 49/00/0
George Smurthwate 102/00/0
Richard Readhead 8/00/0
Ths Greenwell, a house 1/06/0
Ann Hutchinson, a croft 3/00/0
John Hunter 4/00/0
Ths Johnson, a house 18/0
Francis Hunt, a house 1/00/0
Jakes now Mary Pullon at Martenmas last 12/0
Robt Burn, a house 1/00/0
John Robinson, a house 15/0
John Shan, a house 12/0
Mr Egleston, a house and orchard Mayday 65 Wm Pickring 3/00/0
Wm Thomson, a house 12/0
Michall Hills for his shop at Martenmas last 10/0

Total 502/17/0

1765, D/Sa/E 173

Mayday 1765 Mr Eggleston for 9 years for Mattw Corner & Mr Dunn farms 150/10/0
Wm Peckring for Carr Fade & house as long as he grows corn 6/00/0
May 65 An Pacock for Close Farm for 6 years pays all taxes and assts 150/00/0
May 65 Joseph Yeall for his father's & the Hall Farm pays all taxes 173/00/0
65 John Dunn for shop and stables from year to year 1/10/0

1766, D/Sa/E 173

Mayday 1766 Th Mogson for Smurth Farm & Ths Grenwell & Wm Thomson houses 103/00/0

1767, D/Sa/E 173

Tudhoe Rentalls for Mayday 1767

Mr Eggleston 150/10/0
Thos Mogson Farm 103/00/0
Joseph Natress for .. years 72/00/0
Wm & John Henderson 70/00/0
Wm Greathead 45/00/0
John Hixon 22/10/0
Cudbart Dods 10/00/0
Wm Pickring 6/00/0
Ann Hutchinson, a croft 3/00/0
John Hunter pays me 5/8 over his rent I pay seses for H 4/00/0
Ths Johnson, a house 18/0
Mary Pullan, a house 14/0
Jane Robinson, a house 12/0
John Shan, a house 12/0
Michall Hills a shop 10/0
Richard Readhead 8/00/0
Francis Hunt house unlet now Athra Walton 1/00/0

Total 497/06/0

1768, D/Sa/E 173

Rentalls to begin at Mayday 1768

These entries are probably not for Tudhoe. The names are unfamiliar, and the total rent (over 1200 pounds) is too high.

Then running straight on from 1768 are some entries that could relate to Tudhoe:
Mayday 65 Ann Peacock for 6 years pays all taxes 150/00/0
65 Joseph Yeall for 6 years & pays all taxes 173/00/0
John Wilkinson leas out Mayday 1769 114/00/0
N.B. The tenants pays all taxes
John Wilkinson from Mayday 69 to pay all taxes to leed for all the pass 140/00/0
Thos Cuming at Mayday 1769 entered on the paper mill. We find wood he to find workmen...

Monk's House Farm, 1770

There is a high-quality plan of the fields and houses of Monk's House Farm, at Butcher Race, in 1770, in the records of the Dean and Chapter of Durham (who owned it). It shows the positions of buildings in detail, and names the owners of surrounding lands (William Salvin, Anthony Salvin) but stretches only part of the way norh-west along York Hill Road towards the village itself.

Prominent Tudhoe families

The major families who owned land in Tudhoe in the 17th century are listed here, following as far as possible the order of the lands in Homberston's survey of 1570.

The Walkers

Francis Walker of Hett, yoman, was pardoned in 1570 for his part in the Northern Rebellion (included in pardn no. 868).

Francis Walker rented all or most Tudhoe from the Crown for 21 years from 1573, presumably before it was sold to the Earl of Cumberland. However, he may not have been local. I have not seen any evidence of Walkers as early landowners in Tudhoe, but there are Tudhoe Walker baptisms and burials in the Brancepeth register in the early 1600s.

Christopher Walker was married at Brancepeth in 1606.

Richard and Thomas Walker took the Protestation in 1642.

Thomas Walker paid Hearth Tax on two hearths in 1664; that reduced to 1 in 1667 "Rich Byers's". He apparently had 6 hearths in 1674 (according to Adrian Green: can this be right?).

The Hodgesons

The 1492-3 manorial court roll records that "Richard Hogeson complains against Henry Swythynbank in a plea of trespass of unjust incarceration to the harm of the said complainant... whereof... he finds pledges Thomas Spare and William Yley... Christopher Cokeson and John Coll chosen on behalf of the defendant and John Rawe and Thomas Hackfurth (?) on behalf of the complainant... a penalty for the preceding offence to the lord ... 14s 10d... the complainant Richard Hogeson" (translation by Pat Mussett)

There is a pedigree of Hodgson in Surtees, vol. 2, p. 73, and of Hodgson of Manor House in vol. 2, p. 319.

Willius Hodgeson, gentleman, was the most prominent name in Tudhoe in Homberston's Survey of 1570. He also appeared in other places in the Survey, associated with Willius Lee of East Brandon. He probably did not live in Tudhoe, though the entry refers to a messuage (the only one in Tudhoe that does).

Will Hodhson is first in the "list of the names of such as the Erl of Warwick and the Lord Admiral have received into their protection" given above.

Pardon no. 796 of 1570 is for William Hogeson of Madenstedhall, yoman, William Claxton of Waterhouse, gentleman, Nicholas Fetherstonhaigh of Awkenshawe, Ralph Willie of Houghton, yoman, Martin Jackson of Hellmendenrawe, Christopher Shawe of Branspeth, yoman, Ralph Pickering of Mawde Medows, Rowland Wall of Willington, yoman, Ninian Watson of Sommerhouse, yoman, and Edward Marley of Engleston, all in the county of Durham.

The Surtees Society (Durham Wills vol II) have published a will of William Hodshon of the Manner house (Lanchester), dated Nov 12, 1598. The footnotes mention his father James Hodgson of Newcastle and his brother Richard. The will makes it clear that this WH was active in the rebellion, and leaves money to John Langstaff "in consideration of his losses he sustained by me in the late rebellion in the north". Money is also left "in like manner" to Henry Newbye and Nicholas Botcherby. 12 pounds is left to Nicholas Fetherstonhalge of Akinshaw. John Awde is to be allowed "to remain about his house at manner house" for the rest of his life. WH's servant William Watson is mentioned. The will also mentions nephews Robert, Lancelot and William (of Hebburn). The footnotes mention that Lancelot was in prison for recusancy in May 1598, and had married "Marie Lee, daughter of another of th'erle's chief old servants and officers". This was William Lee of East Brandon, who held several pieces of land jointly with William Hodgson (Homberston's Survey).

Several names tie in from the will and pardon: this must be the same William Hodgson. The reference to John Awde is tantalising as a possible Tudhoe connection.

Christopher Hodgson witnessed the sale of Henry Richardson's lands to Ralph Young et al. in 1622.

Lanslot Hodgson was listed in the Brancepeth "brief survey" of 1629.

Radulphus Hodgeson was married at Brancepeth in 1634.
Lancalotum Hodgeson was married at Brancepeth in 1635.
Cuthbert Hodgeson was married at Brancepeth in 1638.
Johannes Hodgson was married at Brancepeth in 1643.

Lancelett Hodshon took the Protestation in Brancepeth in 1642.

"Lady Hodgson" is listed as a papist, and Anne Hodgson as an Anabaptist, in Brancepeth in 1668.

John Hodgeson was married at Brancepeth in 1674.

The Trewhitts

Henrie Trewhitt of Tuddoe, yeoman, bought lands from Bayning et al. for 330 pounds in 1601 (7 July, 34 Eliz) (D/Sa/D 780): all that messuage or tenement with the appurtenences situate lying and being in Tuddowe als Tudho... now or late being in the tenure or occupation of William Hodgson or his assigns..." The fee farm rent specified is 5L 7s 2d, confirming that this is the whole of the Hodgson lands.

Agnes Trewhitt, wife of Henry Trewhitt, was listed as a recusant in 1607.

An Trewthet was married at Brancepeth in 1611.
Christopher Trewthet was married at Brancepeth in 1619.
Isabell Trewthet was married at Brancepeth in 1620.

Henry Trewhett is listed in the Brancepeth survey of 1629, paying a fee farm rent of 53s 7d.

Henry Trewett of Tudhoe died in 1629. My notes on the copy of his will at Palace Green mention Myles as his second son, but see below. There is an inventory too, but I haven't looked at it yet.

Another copy of Henry Trewthett's will is in the Salvin papers (is it the same version?). "I give and bequeath unto Michaell Trewett my second son one house newly built for his life natural and also I give unto him two fine (?) gates (?) pasturing and feeding in the summer pasture called the Willyes... I give and bequeath to my son Myles Trewthet one house and croft called Shippardgarth with all my lands lying and being in beddspeece near adjoining to the sd house in Shippeardgarthhead to him and his heirs for ever... I give unto my son Ralph Trewthet all my lands with all singular appurtenences in Tuddoe to him and his heirs for ???? lawfully begotten... my wife Ann Trewthet shall have belonging to her for her house one chamber next adjoining to my hall house for so long as she shall live... I make my son Raiph Trewthet sole executor of this my will and testament, though he shall profit little thereby. Witnesses hereof Jo. Sparke, Jo. Richardson, George Jackson, George Sparke.

Henry Trewhett's inventory is rather sparse (mostly livestock), amounting to 140 pounds.

Myles Trewthet died in 1632. His inventory amounted to 35 pounds.

Maria Trewhitt was married at Brancepeth in 1634.

Recusants' Rolls 1636-7:
Tenants of Anne Trewitt of Tuddoe (89) owe 66s 8d p.a. ... an annuity of 100s ... for the term of her life ...
And 33s 4d ... total 100s.

89. Anne wife of Henry Trewhitt conv. 1624, ind. 1628; Anne Trewitt widow conv. 1632. 100s collected under a fieri facias 1638.

The same Anne Trewitt ... 6 pounds ... goods ...

Raphe Trewhitt was awarded 16 a in the middle field, "adjoining to the town" in the 1639 enclosure award.

Ra. Trewthitt took the Protestation in 1642 (the second name listed).

Ralph Trewhitt sold a plot of land 23 yds x 10 yds to Thomas Richardson (who was he?) to build a house in 1656.

In 1661, Ralph Trewhitt sold to Henry Trewhitt (his son) the High Pasture, Newfall, the Haugh, the Shaw, Springwood and Broomgarth", "together also with the west part of the dwelling-house now in the possession of the said Ralph Trewhitt or his Ass. and the barn and two tenements to said house belonging together with the Ba..house grounds also belonging or appertaining". All these fields are at or beyond the north end of the village. The Broom Garth later became part of Henry Sidgwick's estate.

Also in 1661, Ralph Trewhitt sold to John Browne of the City of Durham and John Browne of Sunderland Bridge "the Willows, the Bankes and one room in the eastmost part of the dwelling house now in the occupation of the said Ralph Trewhitt".

In [month?] 1662, Henry and Ann Trewhitt sold the New Fall and High Pasture, including the associated common rights on Spennymoor, to Ralph Salvin "of Croxdale" for 200 pounds (D/Sa/D 787). The document refers to Henry Trewhitt's father Ralph and grandfather Henry, which pins down the generations conclusively. I don't think this sale included a house.

Henry Trewthit was married at Brancepeth in 1664.

In 1666 (May 22), Henry Trewhitt sold to Ralph Salvin "of Croxdale" his common rights on Spennymoor. This pins down Ralph Salvin's move to Tudhoe quite well.

Henry Trewhitt paid tax on 3 hearths in 1667.

D/Sa/D 799 (1672) appears to relate to a sale from Henry Trewhitt, Anthony Salvin and Henry Fethersonhalgh to Ralph Salvin. However, D/Sa/D 801 is a request to reallocate the tithes etc. due on Trewhitt's farm between Ralph Salvin, Henry Fetherstonhalgh of Stanley and Anthony Salvin. Anthony Salvin died in 1707 (will D/Sa/F 36), having first transferred his lands to his sons James and Anthony.

D/Da/D 802 (1683) is a release of all claims in Tudhoe to Ralph Salvin by "Henry Trewhitt late of Tudhoe and now of Gateshead".

The Fetherston[halgh]s

There is a pedigree of Fetherstonhalgh of Stanhope in St. George's Visitation of Durham (1615), and one of Fetherstonhalgh of Stanley in Dugdale's Visitation of Durham (1666) (both published by Foster (1887), p. 119 and 121). The latter is relevant to Tudhoe.

Nichus Fetherstonhaugh of Stanley is listed in Homberston's survey in 1570.

Nicholas Fetherstonhaigh of Awkenshawe is listed in the same group pardon as William Hodgson in 1570, and was among those "given protection" by the Earl of Warwick and the Lord Admiral during the Rebellion itself.

Nicholas Fetherstonhalgh of Akenshawe, Brancepeth, died in 1595. His will is water-damaged and only partially legible. He leaves the lease of Stanley ??? to his wife Mary, then to ??? Fetherstonhalghe, then to ???'s brother Willm Fetherstonehalghe. He also leaves one angel to Michael Pemberton, who is a witness of the will.

Where was Akenshawe? Is it the same as the modern Oakenshaw?

William Hodgson's will left money to Nicholas Fetherstonhalgh of Akinshaw: William Hodgson died in 1598, so the date of his will needs checking.

Henricus Fetherstonhaugh is listed in the Neville Survey of 1606-7, with half of the lands that had previously belonged to William Hodgson. He is also listed in the 1629 survey.

According to Dugdale's Visitation, Henry's sons were Lyonell (died unmarried), Lancelot (died unmarried) and William. Lyonell Fetherstonhalgh of Brancepeth died in 1626. His will says: "I give and bequeath all my land at Stanley Tuddowe and elsewhere wheresoever to my two loving and dear brethren Lancelot Fetherstonhalgh and Wm Fetherstonhalgh and to the longer lived of them... and if it happen that neither of my said brethren have issue lawfully begotten then I give all my said land unto Robert and Edward Pemmerton sons of Michaell Pemmerton my kinsman...". The inventory was prepared on 4 April 1626 by John Sparke, John Richeson, George Jackson and Raiphe Bierley. I wonder where Lyonell Fetherstonhalgh lived? If it was in Brancepeth itself, it is remarkable that his lands are specified as "at Stanley and Tuddowe" and that all four of the appraisers of his inventory lived in Tudhoe.

Mr. William Fetherstonhalgh of Brancepeth, gent, was awarded 40 a in the middle field in the 1639 enclosure award.

Mr Willm Fetherston took the Protestation in Brancepeth in 1642.

William Fetherstonhalgh is listed as a freeholder in 1655, and Ff Fetherstonhalgh in 1684. In 1667, Richard Willson lived in a house belonging to Mr Fetherston, and in 1699 Henry Willson lived in one similarly labelled.

According to Dugdale's Visitation, William Fetherstonhalgh died in 1659. His son Henry was aged 35 in 1666. His sons at that time were William (aged 5) and Christopher.

Mr. Henry Fetherstonhalgh of Stanley is listed as a Tudhoe freeholder in 1673.

Henry Fetherstonhalgh of Stanley died on 21 Nov 1677. His inventory, but no will, is at Palace Green. There are also bonds that indicate that William Fetherstonhalgh was his executor.

William Fetherstonhalgh of Alston Moor died in 1684 (will and inventory at Palace Green, not yet inspected).

Henry and George Sidgwick

Henry Siggiswick of Tudde was pardoned after the 1570 Rebellion (Calendar of Patent Rolls 1570, no. 872)

Henricus Seggeswick is listed in Homberston's Survey of 1570: holds one tenement with all lands, meadows, pastures, rights of pasture, moors and commons and all their appurtenances..., 10? years from 20 June, 7 Eliz (1565): 30s 6d.

Henry Seighwick, husbandman, died in 1587. His will (7 Sept 1587: Reg VII, 187v-188) says "to Georg Seighwick and Willm Seighwick my sons the lease of my farmhold and my will is that they shall govern all my other children". His other children Thomas, Janet, Annys, Isbill and Alison are left 40 s each. "I give my son George that is to saye above and a shaiffe of arrows a steel cap a sword." However, there is also a bond that suggests that Thomas and Janet died soon afterwards, as minors. The will is witnessed by Robt Richardson, Henry Truet, Willm Jackson and Robt Byars. Robert Byers and Roger Wheatley owed HS 21s and 24/2d respectively. Willm Harryson, Robt Richeson, Henry Trewhitt and Willm Jackson prepared the inventory on 9 January 1587.

George Siggiswick bought Henry Sidgewick's land from Bayning et al. for 115 pounds (D/Sa/D 734).

Wm Siggeswick witnessed William Richardson's will in 1606.

George Sidgwick is listed in the Brancepeth surveys of 1607 and 1629, paying a fee farm rent of 30s 6d.

??? Sigiswick is listed as a tenant in the Brancepeth survey of 1629, replacing Michael Biars (whose name is crossed out).

Georgium Sidgewick was married at Brancepeth in 1633.
Thomas Sigswick was married at Brancepeth in 1640.

Henry Sidgwick was awarded 43 a in the west field in the 1639 enclosure award, and a further 2 a "lying about and beside the water milne".
George Sidgwick was also mentioned, but not awarded any land.

Recusants' Roll 1636-7: John Sidgeswicke (92) of the same 20s for the like ...
92. Conv. with Mary his wife 1632.

Henry Sidgwick took the Protestation in 1642 (fourth name listed).
Jo. Sidgwick refused it.

Henry Sidgwick paid tax on 2 hearths "his own and mother's" in 1667, was listed as a Tudhoe freeholder in 1684, and paid Window Tax in 1697-1703.

Henry Sidgwick of Tudhoe is listed as a Tudhoe freeholder in 1673 (19.0.0).
George Sidgwick of Helm Park (4.10.0) is also mentioned (probably for the Mill).

Henry Sidgwick's will of 1684 leaves all his freehold land (except the Mill) in Tudhoe to his eldest son Henry, and the Mill to his second son William.

The 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return lists Henry Sedgwick high Constable (batchelor), Widdow Sedgwick, her sons James and George, her daughters Ann and Mary, her manservant Will Cheswick and her maidservant Ann Errington (?).

Henry Sidgwick paid tax on 18 windows in 1697, but it seems the number had recently increased from 5. His place had been taken by James Sidgwick in 1702 and 1703.

Ralph Salvin bought "old barley malt" from Henry Sidgwick in 1729.

In 1733, Henry Sedgewick formerly of Tudhoe but now of New Elvet, Gent., sold lands to Richard Wilson of Bitchburn, nephew and heir of Henry Wilson late of Tudhoe, Gent., decd., for 200+150+50 pounds (D/Sa/D 747). Other lands were sold to Hilton in 1744 for 1700 pounds (D/Sa/D 749). Wharton was also mentioned, releasing his right to something to Hilton for 5 shillings. The sale to Hilton mentions the water-corn-mill.

A declaration by Ann Sedgwick of Elvet, eldest daughter of Henry Sidgwick of Elvet, deceased, dated 18 April 1744, describes the land in detail:

All that messuage tenement or dwelling house situate standing and being in Tudho in the county of Durham together with the orchard, stackgarth, foldgarth, barns, byers, outhouses, stables, and a close called the Croft situate standing and adjoining upon the back of the said dwelling house containing by estimation two acres of ground and all those two closes called or known by the name of Two Chair Closes situate and being on the north side of the lane leading to the town of Tudho aforesaid containing by estimation seven acres of ground and also all that close or parcel of ground called the Hither Shelth containing by estimation eight acres of ground and adjoining on the east side of a Close called the Farr Shelth and also all those two fields called the Two Nukes containing by estimation five acres adjoining on the north side of the said parcel of ground called the Hither Shelth and also all that close or parcel of ground called the Broom Garth containing by estimation two acres and a half adjoining on the west side of the lane leading to Brancepeth and also all those closes and parcels of land with the house and barn thereunto belonging hereafter particularly mentioned / that is to say / the High Pasture, the Moor adjoining thereto, the Nooks, the Hagg Wood now divided into two closes and the two further Shelths now divided into two closes and also all that water corn mill with the messuage orchard and appurtenances to the same belonging and all that parcel of ground called the Scroggs one part whereof the said mill stands and a close called the Cross Close which lies near unto or adjoining the said parcel of ground called the Scroggs all which said premises are situate standing and being within the Town and Township of Tudho aforesaid and were late the estate of the said Henry Sedgwick deceased and are now in the possession of the said Ann Sedgwick Elizabeth Sedgwick and Robert Hilton or some of them...

Apart from the croft, the two Chair Closes and the Broom Garth, these seem to be the fields awarded to George Sidgwick in the 1639 enclosure. The Hither Shelth must correspond to Long Seth on the 1839 plan.

The Henry Sidgwick lands (54 acres) were among those bought by B J Salvin from/via Hilton in the early 19th century.

A messuage and the paper/corn mill were bought by B J Salvin in 1817 from John Ord and others. The catalogue mentions Sidgewick-Hilton-Clarke.

The Highes

John Highe is listed in Homberston's Survey, with a substantial tenement and the mill. He died in 1587, and his will (Reg VII, p. 2) and inventory (Reg. VII, p. 10-11v) reveal a businessman with his hand in many pies. Among other things, he says "I give to my said son Thomas Highe the lease of the mylne at Tuddoe".

Bayning et al. sold to Thomas Highe for 68 pounds in 1600 "all that messuage or tenement now or late being in the tenure or occupation of John Highe" (D/Sa/D 640). The sale document mentions the mill. The fee farm rental is 19/2d. [Check this! What's missing? The mill?]

Thomas High was married at Brancepeth in 1601.

William son of Thomas Highe of Tudhoe was baptised at Brancepeth on 11 July 1602.

In 1605, Thomas Highe bought the messuage that had been William White's (fee farm rent 9/2d) from Robert Richardson (D/Sa/D 641): it was one of three that Richardson had bought from Bayning et al. D/Sa/D 643 (1619?) looks as though it refers to lands formerly William White's and now occupied by Thomas Highe and Robert Shortered.

Another 1605 document is a transfer from Robert and Cuthbert Shortered to Thomas Highe of a tenement in the occupation of Robert Shortered.

Thomas Highe witnessed the sale of Henry Richardson's lands to Ralph Young et al. in 1622.

Thomas Highe is listed in the Brancepeth survey of 1629, paying a fee farm rent of 29s 2d.

Thomas Heighe compounded for the arrearages of Robert Shortread in 1630 (Northern Book of Compositions 1629-32, Catholic Records, vol. ??, p. 355). D/Sa/D 644 has to do with Thomas Highe's acquisition in 1632 of Shortrede's lands: "Thomas Highe of Tuddo... being a conformable person...". D/Sa/D 645 (15 Oct 1632) is a receipt: "Received from Thomas High 40/- charged... the lands of Robert Shortridg late of Tuddoe deceased, who was a convicted Recusant"

D/Sa/D 647 is a lease from John Highe to Thomas Highe (1633) for land occupied by Thomas Heigh and John Sparke, with a rent of 4 pounds.

Thomas and John Highe sold to Jarrard Salvin in 1637 and 1638 "all and singular their houses, lands..." (D/Sa/D 648). The document makes reference to the discharge re recusancy of "Robert Shortridge of Tuddoe, yeoman" in 1632(?).

Thomas Highe's will of 1642 makes no reference to land.

No Highes took the Protestation in 1642.

The Whites

William White was listed in Homberston's Survey of 1570 and the Neville Survey of 1607 (9/2d), but not in 1629.

William White's tenement was among those sold to Robert Richardson in 1601, then to the Highes.

William White and Myles White owed John Sparke money in 1637.

The Shortridges

Some of the information below is very confusing: were Shortrede, Shortered, Shortrick, Shortridge all the same family? I don't think John Harrison's land was the same as Roger Harrison's, but this makes it look as though they were. The deeds need looking at again!

Jennet Shortred of Tudhoe was buried at Brancepeth on 18 Jan 1599/1600

Robert son of Thomas Shortred of Tudhoe was baptised at Brancepeth on 5 July 1601.

John Harrison sold land to Thomas Shortrede (D/Sa/D 804). I think this was part of the "labourers' lands". [Check this: it seems more likely to have been part of the Richard/John Harrison lands]

There are several bonds involving Thomas Shortrede and John Sparke: D/Sa/D 653, 1601, 40 pounds; D/Sa/D 660, 1606, 20 pounds; D/Sa/D 659.

Thomas Shortrigg was one of those who prepared the inventory for William Harrison in 1605.

Robert Shortred['s] wyfe of Tudhoe was buried at Brancepeth on 19 Sept 1605.

Thomas Shortrede sold land to Thomas Highe in 1605.

No. 167 is --, wife of Thomas Shortred of Heighington, yeo., was listed as a recusant in 1607. This may or may not be relevant.

The following needs reconciling with D/Sa/D 804, supposedly John Harrison - Thomas Shortrede. Is it John or Roger Harrison? It seems more likely that they are all John Harrison.

John Shortrede sold the messuage formerly in the possession of Roger Harrison to Anthony and Michael Norman in 1616 (D/Sa/D 805). It seems to have been sold back to Jane Shortreed of the Broome in 1654 (and was then in the occupation of Robert Corner) (D/Sa/D 806). Jane Shortreed must be "Widdow Shortrigg". It was in the occupation of Jarrard Walker in 1667 (D/Sa/D 807) and 1672 (Peter Shortrede's will, D/Sa/D 808) which places it between the Hall and Woodlands. It was left to another Peter Shortrede. It was eventually sold (by him or his son Peter) to Peter Richardson, probably for 550 pounds, in about 1733 (D/Sa/D 610). Peter Richardsons will of 1743 (D/Sa/D 815) leaves the house and Unthank Close, and other lands including Shortridge's High Grounds and Shortridge's Low Grounds, to his sisters Mary Reah and Ann Wilson, and then to his nephew Thomas Richardson. Thomas Richardson sold it to Thomas Miller in 1764. Some of the lands did not come into Salvin ownership until 1821. (There is a very useful abstract of these sales in D/Sa/D 820). Peter Richardson's crown rent in 1750 was 9/2d: could this be the Duckett/Harrison messuage from 1570?

D/Sa/D 643 mentions lands "formerly in the tenure of William White and now ... Thomas Highe and Robert Shortered (1619?).

Thomas Heighe compounded for the arrearages of Robert Shortread in 1630 (Northern Book of Compositions 1629-32, Catholic Records, vol. ??, p. 355). D/Sa/D 644 has to do with Thomas Highe's acquisition in 1632 of Shortrede's lands: "Thomas Highe of Tuddo... being a conformable person...". D/Sa/D 645 (15 Oct 1632) is a receipt: "Received from Thomas High 40/- charged... the lands of Robert Shortridg late of Tuddoe deceased, who was a convicted Recusant". These lands were bought by Jerrard Salvin in 1637.

Robert Shortrede thus died before 1632 (see above).

John Sparke's will of 1636 mentions a tenement that he purchased from Thomas Shortrick.

John Shortrick was awarded 20 a in the middle field in the 1639 enclosure award.

John Shortrigg paid King's Rent (?) of 13s 4d in 1662 and Land Tax of L2 5s in 1667.

Widdow Shortridge of Broome was a Tudhoe freeholder in 1673. She rented a house to James Ellinor (1665-7) and then Jarrard Walker (1668-73).

The Willsons

The Willsons were an extensive family of yeoman farmers who grew in importance in the 17th century. They were apparently not Catholic, and do not appear in the recusant rolls.

There are no Willsons in the Brancepeth survey of 1629.

William Wilson is mentioned in the 1639 enclosure award, but not awarded any land.

Jo. Wilson took the Protestation in 1642.

There is a fascinating lease of 1668 (D/Sa/E 355, see below), on the back of which Ralph Salvin gives a detailed description of work done in making ready a house for William Willson; William appears in the Hearth Tax records for 1673 with one hearth (but not in 1667). Richard Willson (William's brother) does appear in 1667, with 2 hearths in a house belonging to Mr Fetherstone. Richard pays the largest tithe in the village in 1671. By 1684, Richard Willson and two William Willsons are included in the list of freeholders.

The notes on the back of William Willson's lease include references in 1678 to "Wm Willson the miller" and in 1679 to "Ma Willson the millers wife". William Willson's wife, mentioned in his will, was named Jane. Neither William nor Richard mentioned a son named William in their wills, though William had grandsons named William. Who was the miller? Surely not their father? [Two William Willsons signed the freeholders list in 1684].

William Willson's will (probate 1687 T38) exists, and mentions houses and lands that he purchased from John Wheatley and his eldest son Michael Wheatley. They are left to his wife Jane for her life and then to his sons John, Thomas and Humphrey. William's daughters Margaret and Mary are also mentioned. John has children Jane and William. Thomas's eldest son is also William. This will is dated 1 Nov 1686, and is in Ralph Salvin Sr.'s hand; William Willson signs his mark (W); it is witnessed by Richard Willson (mark X) and Henry Wilson (signature).

Richard Willson's will (probate 1690 T178, possibly in Ralph Salvin Jr.'s hand; RS is a witness, anyway) mentions his late brothers Henry, George and William (widow Jane) and his servant Isabel Spark. His sons Henry, Richard, Thomas and John are mentioned; Henry and Richard are his executors. Henry receives "all those cottage houses and garth thereunto adjoining and belonging... on or near Tuddoe Green... and by me among other lands lately purchased from Ralph Salvin of Tuddoe aforesaid gent and Nicholas Salvin of the city of Durham gent and heretofore parcel of the estate of Wm Bierley of Tuddoe aforesaid and xxx and now in the possession of Wm Bell and Widdow Sparke...". Richard receives "all that my house and messuage with the croft thereunto belonging ... between the houses and grounds of Ralph Byars and Nicholas Fishburn and now in the possession of Raiph Bowron." Thomas and his son Richard receive money; John is forgiven various debts, and left money to manage for other relatives (mostly the children of Richard's deceased siblings, who are listed).

The 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return lists five Wilson households:

John and Henry Willson, probably the eldest sons of William and Richard Willson respectively, both have substantial houses (10-14 windows) in the 1697 window tax return.

Thomas Willson, who might be a younger son of either Richard or William (probably Richard, see above), is recorded as renting the largest Salvin farm in Tudhoe from Ralph Salvin from at least 1717 to 1738. Bryan Salvin describes him as "my cosin's chief tenant" in 1729.

William Willson was also a tenant of Ralph Salvin's in 1729, and was sent to fetch Bryan Salvin from York when Ralph was taken ill.

In a later generation, Robert Willson is recorded as renting a large farm from William Salvin in 1758. Henry Willson (weaver, aged 40), his wife Juda, 3 sons and a daughter are listed as Tudhoe papists in 1767.

William Willson's house

D/Sa/E 355 is a lease of 1668 from Ralph Salvin to William Willson of "all those his two houses crofts and carr lately in the possession of Emry Richardson and Anthony Harp with the barns and byar belonging to them; and also the cross close; little high pasture; newfall and Trewitt's high pasture joining upon Spennimoore lately let with Emrys house as also that parcel of pasture ground known by the name of Sparks high pasture and now in the possession of Emry Richardson...". "High's two cottages" are also mentioned. A later section of the lease says "The said Ralph Salvin to build a room about four yards long at the south end of the dwelling house Jo Harper now lives in; and to loft it above at his proper cost and charge; only the said Willm to help to lead sand thack and sometimes stone to further the building at his convenient times, and some foothers of cobble stones from Trewitts and Sparks high pastures every year; and to help to gather the cobble stones of the fallow land every year into heaps; in these three high pastures; and good quantity of the cobble stones out of the new laid wheat field joining upon Robt Lee great pasture.

[Lee's pasture was beyond New Fall at the north end of the village.]

The notes on the back of the lease record work actually carried out:

Willm Willson's agreement and mine for his farm and the house Emry Richardson lived in dated Decemb 9th 1668

Md upon June the 24th 69 Willm Willson went into this house all made ready for him; the new room and the old part of the fore house; in the new room 4 windows new glazed; and the old east window in the inner room of the old house; the dairy and fore house pticons: all latted and plastered with lime and hair. and six doors 4 new fir shelves in the ganell end of the dairy fixed. 2 long oak shelves in the side wth pine & oke bearers. A short fir shelf on the right hand at the going in of the door and a narrow fir shelf over the door head all belonging to the milk house. The milk house and chamber all firmly lofted and nailed with the old oak boards and new firrdales precd out, and about a yard ofier (?) the fore house. A new fir door betwixt the fore house and inner room with new iron bands and crookes wood handle catch and sneck to it. A planke foorme with 2 posts fixed in the chimney corner to the little post and hallen (?). A new sole stone in the hearth with the old cheek stones had from Willm Willson; & their bars set in them. An old oak door in the heck with the old lock and key to it a wood sneck catch; handle; bolt and keys; with a pair of large new bands and crooks to it; an old oak door in the entry to the town gate with the old lock and key to it a wood sneck catch handle belt and keys with a pair of large new bands and crooks to it and thus all fitted and done at my charge. He entered of this house hodie.

Md August 18th 1674. Again Wm Willson 15 new firrdales to loft it precd over the entry ?? byre it hath coffer jeasts laid and lofting it; and his 3 sons carried them down this evening to this house.

Md in the beginning of Feb 1674 and last month all the hedge and young quick belonging to Trewitts high pastures (part of this farm) was scowred and footed by Ja Ellinor; Tho Taylor and Hen Hillery; being in all five score and 6 roods. And Wm Willson pd them for it as they told me.

Md Novemb 28th 1678. Wm Willsons 3 sons had 40 firrdales from me to lay up in their byre and house. And 4 firrdales my men carried over to Wm Willsons the miller; to lay up in his house over the way. & 5 firrdales more they laid up in my little new house adjoining to Wm Pearsons. In all 49.

Md April 14 1679. I gave Ma Willson the millers wife 3 short firr boards about longer than oake board and shelves for her little milk house and 2 short thicker oake plank boards for a little table in it; to be fixed there and the shelves to belong to the house at the removal of any tenant as well as the table.

Md the latter end of Augst (81) my men brought back from Wm Willsons Sen 20 of these small dales and scaffolding at the new house in my croft head.

Md in May 83 Wm Pearson and Nicho Hull brought back from Wm Willson 6 more of these small dales.

The Ducketts, William Harrison (labourer) and Margaret Harrison

On 8 Nov 1600, Bayning et al. sold to William Harrison, labourer, for 31 pounds "all those their four several cottages or tenements... now in the several tenures or occupations of the said William Harrison, John Wheatly, Raphe Wheately, Roger Wheatly and John Colman of Tuddow aforesaid laborers". The rents specified total 26s 8d, made up of John Wheatley 7s 6d, Raphe Wheatley 5s 6d, William Harrison 9s 2d, John Colman 4s 6d (D/Sa/D 652). These were the tenements occupied in 1570 by Emmerius Whetley, Emmery Whetley, Willius Duckett and Nicholas Colman respectively.

Note that William Harrison (labourer) is not the William Harrison of 1570 and later, who was succeeded by Roger Harrison.

On 26 Sept, Eliz 34 (1601?), William Harrison sold to John Colman and Thomas Colman his son the land that had been John Colman's. A "meadow in the Haugh" is also mentioned.

William Harrison died in 1605. His will (1603) leaves the lease on his farm to his wife, and then to his son Michael. Other children Margaret, Agnes, Elizabeth and Richard are mentioned. The witnesses are William Duckett, William Jackson, Robert Richerdson. The inventory was prepared by Thomas Shortrigg, John Sparke, John Colman and John Wheatley.

William Herrison is listed as a recusant in 1607.

The Neville survey of 1607 lists Richardus Herryson (27s 2d) and Wille Harryson (19s 9d). It seems likely that the latter entry is simply carried over from 1570, despite the fact that Roger Harrison now owns the land, and that the land now belonging to William Harrison (labourer) is incorrectly recorded as still belonging to Duckett.

The Brancepeth survey of 1629 lists fee farm rents for Radus Wheatley (5s 6d), John Wheatley (7s 6d), John Harryson (27s 2d), Roger Harryson (19s 9d), Thomas Coleman (4s 6d) and Margaret Harryson (9s 2d).

The Colmans

On 8 Nov 1600, Bayning et al. sold to William Harrison, labourer, for 31 pounds "all those their four several cottages or tenements... now in the several tenures or occupations of the said William Harrison, John Wheatly, Raphe Wheately, Roger Wheatly and John Colman of Tuddow aforesaid laborers". The rents specified total 26s 8d, made up of John Wheatley 7s 6d, Raphe Wheatley 5s 6d, William Harrison 9s 2d, John Colman 4s 6d (D/Sa/D 652). These were the tenements occupied in 1570 by Emmerius Whetley, Emmery Whetley, Willius Duckett and Nicholas Colman respectively.

On 26 Sept, Eliz 34 (1601?), William Harrison sold to John Colman and Thomas Colman his son the land that had been John Colman's. A "meadow in the Haugh" is also mentioned.

John Colman of Tudhoe was buried at Brancepeth on 20 Dec 1607.

The Neville survey of 1607 lists Nicholas Colman, paying a fee farm rent of 4s 6d.

The Brancepeth survey of 1629 lists fee farm rents for Radus Wheatley (5s 6d), John Wheatley (7s 6d), John Harryson (27s 2d), Roger Harryson (19s 9d), Thomas Coleman (4s 6d) and Margaret Harryson (9s 2d).

George Sparke bought some land from Thomas Colman in 1631 (D/Sa/D 658). This document is in Latin, but mentions Butcher Race.

Recusants' Roll 1636-7: Tenants ... of Barbara Coleman (90) of Tuddoe owe 20s p.a. ... of a tenement in Tuddoe a.v. 30s.
and 10s ... Total 30s.

90. Barbara wife of Tho. Coleman conv. 1615, 1624, ind. 1628; widow, conv. 1632.

The same Barbara Coleman ... 40s ... goods ...

Barbarie Coleman, widow, was awarded 2 a, 1r in the west field in 1639.

Wm Coleman took the Protestation in 1642. The 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return lists Robert Coleman, his wife Ann and son John. Robert Cobleman paid tax on 4 windows in 1697, but does not appear in 1702 or 1703.

John Cooke and the Wheatleys

Homberston's survey has two Whetley entries in different places:
Emmery Whetley, tenement, 10 years from 2 July, 7 Eliz (1565), 5s. 6d.
Emmerius Whetley, tenement, 20 years from 6 M[arch?], 3 Eliz (1561), 7s. 6d.
These may well be the same person, though the plots of land were different. The second one specifically mentions a toft and croft; the entry is the last of those describing leases, and is different from the rest, so may well be out of geographical sequence.

John Cooke was a free tenant, paying 6d and a pound of pepper.

Robert Wheatley was among those pardoned in 1570.

Roger Wheatley owed Henry Seighwick 24s 2d in 1587.

On 8 Nov 1600, Bayning et al. sold to William Harrison, labourer, for 31 pounds "all those their four several cottages or tenements... now in the several tenures or occupations of the said William Harrison, John Wheatly, Raphe Wheately, Roger Wheatly and John Colman of Tuddow aforesaid laborers". The rents specified total 26s 8d, made up of John Wheatley 7s 6d, Raphe Wheatley 5s 6d, William Harrison 9s 2d, John Colman 4s 6d (D/Sa/D 652). These were the tenements occupied in 1570 by Emmerius Whetley, Emmery Whetley, Willius Duckett and Nicholas Colman respectively.

John Wheatley witnessed William Harrison's will in 1603.

William Richardson's inventory of 1606 mentions "one table bord at Roger Wheatley's house".

The Neville survey of 1607 lists Emerie Wheatley (5s 6d) and Johannes Whetley (12s 6d, surely 7s 6d?). Johannes Wheatley is also listed as a free tenant paying 6d and 1 lb pepper; this was Johnes Cooke's rent in 1570.

Roger Wheatley was married at Brancepeth in 1607.
William Wheatley was married at Brancepeth in 1624.
Michel Wheatley was married at Brancepeth in 1627.

The Brancepeth survey of 1629 lists fee farm rents for Radus Wheatley (5s 6d) and John Wheatley (7s 6d). It thus appears that Ralph has succeeded Emmery and John has succeeded Emmerius.

Michael Wheatley was awarded 13 a in the west field in the 1639 enclosure award.

No Wheatleys took the Protestation in 1642.

Margt Wheatley signed the 1655 freeholders' agreement.

Michael and William Wheatley paid Kings Rent of a pound of pepper in 1662.
John Wheatley paid Kings Rent of 7/6d in 1662.

John Wheatley paid Hearth Tax in 1663-73, and Henry Wheatley in 1670. Other Wheatleys are mentioned as non-solvents.

Michael Wheatley sold land to John Sidgwick in 1672 (Ettricke).

The 1673 list of freeholders includes John Wheatley, with lands values at 2.3.4.

William Willson bought two houses from John Wheatley and his eldest son Michael Wheatley some time between 1673 and his death in 1686.

The 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return lists several Wheatley households:

None of the Wheatleys paid Window Tax in 1697-1703, or were listed as papists in 1705.

Richard, John and Hugh Harrison

Richard Herryson (27/2d) and William Harrison (19/9d) are listed in Homberston's survey of 1570.

John Harrison sold land to Thomas Shortrede (D/Sa/D 804).
Thomas Shortrede sold land to Thomas Highe in 1605.

The Neville survey of 1607 lists Richardus Herryson (27s 2d) and Wille Harryson (19s 9d).

John Herison was married at Brancepeth in 1615.

The Brancepeth survey of 1629 lists fee farm rents for John Harryson (27s 2d), Roger Harryson (19s 9d), and Margaret Harryson (9s 2d). It thus appears that John succeeded Richard and Roger succeeded William from 1570.

John Harrison of Tudhoe sold/mortgaged land to Agnes Bowes of Newcastle, widow, in 1609 (D/Sa/D 827). She sold it in 1616 to Hugh Herrison (D/Sa/D 829). He sold/mortgaged it to Edward Holme of Newcastle in 1629 (D/Sa/D 832, witnessed by Roger Harrison, William Harrison, Henry Lashe, Humphrey Foster and Willm Richardson). Hugh Harrison and Edward Holme sold a messuage to Jerrard Salvin in 1632 for L92/10/- (D/Sa/D 833). The land is referred to as "sometime in the tenure of John Harrison". The sale was witnessed by John Sparke, John Richardson and George Sparke. It seems quite likely that this was just the house, and that the associated land was sold to someone else (John Shortrigg?), but this needs checking.

There are no Tudhoe Harrison wills at Palace Green for 1620-59.

No Harrisons took the Protestation in 1642.

Emry, William, John and George Richardson

Emmerius Richardson is listed in Homberston's Survey, and Emrye Richardson was described as Ralph Byerley's "neighbour" when he took down the latter's 1573 will.

Emry Richardson died in 1573. His will (30 Sept: Reg IV, 82) leaves "a freehouse in Awlde Elvett in Durham" to his wife Agnes and then to his son John. Another son William and daughters Isabel and Agnes are mentioned. The witnesses are Henry Richardson, Willm Herrison, John Highe and John Sparke.

Bayning et al. sold the lands that had been Emry Richardson's to John Richardson on 7 Nov 1600. I have not seen the original deed, but it is listed in a 1787 abstract of Peter Richardson's lands, D/Sa/D 1038 (which claims, rather implausibly, that Peter was the grandson of this John).

John Richerson was married at Brancepeth in 1600.
William Richeson was married at Brancepeth in 1618.
William Richeson was married at Brancepeth in 1630.

William Richardson of Tudhoe, batchelor, was buried at Brancepeth on 14 Mar 1605/6.

The 1606 will of William Richardson (presumably the same) leaves 10 L, a table and an arke to his brother John Richardson, 8L 10s Raphe owes and a further 6L to Raphe Byerley his brother in law. No children are mentioned, and his brother John get the residue of his estate. The witnesses are Robt Richardson and Wm Siggeswick.

John Richardson is listed in the Brancepeth surveys of 1607 and 1629 paying a fee farm rent of 15s 10d.

John son of John Richerdson of Tudhoe was baptised at Brancepeth on 23 Feb 1616/7.

Robert son of William Richeson of Tudhoe was baptised at Brancepeth on 10 Aug 1623.

Look for a John Richardson who died ca. 1640?

John Richardson was awarded 32 a in the west field in the 1639 enclosure award.

Jo. Richeson and William Richardson took the Protestation in 1642.

John Richardson was a Tudhoe freeholder in 1655 (the only Richardson in the list). He owned his own farm at the South end of East Row in 1664-73, valued at 13.10.00 in 1662 and 14.0.0 in 1673. This must be the same land as Emry Richardson's in 1570.

George Richardson was married at Brancepeth in 1659.

Emery Richardson formerly lived in one of the Salvin houses that were let to William Willson in 1668.

George Richardson lived somewhere at the south end of the village, in a house belonging to Ann Dunn, in 1665-7.

Emery and George Richardson were Sidgwick tenants in 1668-73. Emry Richardson, husbandman, paid tax on 1 hearth in 1667, and was listed as a papist in 1668.

Look for a John Richardson who died ca. 1670?

Johes Richardson was married at Brancepeth in 1671.
George Richardson was married at Brancepeth in 1676.
John Richardson was married at Brancepeth in 1694.

The 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return lists several Richardson households:

Look for a John Richardson who died ca. 1700?

John, George and Emry Richardson are listed in the Window Tax returns for 1697-1703.

In 1718, John Richardson sold to Ralph Crookes of Croxdale for 160 pounds "all that messuage or tenement and one close lately divided into two closes commonly called by the name of the Ratten Row containing by estimation 6 acres...". Ratten Row is described as boundering on the north and south on two closes belonging to Ralph Salvin and in the tenure and occupation of Thomas Johnson and Richard Arrowsmith, and on the east on a close belonging to Thomas Wilkinson of the City of Durham and in the tenure and occupation of Thomas Johnson (D/Sa/D 1030,1031). However, Ralph Crookes sold it back to Peter Richardson in 1725 (D/Sa/D 1033), supposedly the grandson of the original John Richardson (of 1600).

From 1719, John Richardson was a tenant of Ralph Salvin's. His lease needs checking to see who preceded him.

Two John Richardsons were married at Brancepeth in 1729 and 1730, and another in 1749.

Peter Richardson died in 1743. His will (D/Sa/D 1034) lists his messuage, house and tenement, 2 closes that he bought from Ralph Crookes, Unthank's Close that he bought from John Unthank, and 2 high fields called Shortridge's fields; all are left to his sisters Mary Reah and Ann Wilson, but seem to have passed eventually to Thomas Richardson, who died in 1775 (D/Sa/D 1035).

In 1805, B J Salvin bought a messuage and closes including Ratten Row from William Gibson and others, with title from 1600. The title is very complicated after they left Richardson hands: see the abstract D/Sa/D 1038. The catalogue mentions Richardson-Lawson 1718-1805.

Ralph Watson

The 1492-3 manorial court roll records that "Robert Watson complains against Hugh Hepperley of Preston on Skerne in a plea of illegally detaining one chaldron of corn to the value of 18s 8d which he [was to?] deliver at the Feast of Whitsuntide last and which has often been asked for. The jury says that the said defendant must [pay?] to the defendant 11s 8d" (translation by Pat Mussett)

Ralph Watson was the largest holder of land in Tudhoe in 1570, and was also listed as Ralph Byerley's "neighbour" when he took down the latter's 1573 will.

The latest mention I have seen so far is of "Ralph Watson the bailiff" in Henry Richardson's will is 1579.

What became of Ralph Watson of Tudhoe? Ralph Watson of Thorpthewles died in 1612. His will (Sept 1612: Reg VII, 342-343) mentions his wife Anne and son William. He says "I give unto my daughter Margaret three score and ten pounds and gods blessing and mine". The witnesses are Francis Grene and William Bambrough. Is this the same as Ralph Watson of Tudhoe, who also had a wife Ann and daughter Margaret? Recall that two Ralph Watsons, of Tudhoe and Thorpe Thewles, were pardoned in 1570. This is very confusing! There are plenty of other Watson wills:

Ralph Watson might be related to the Watsons of Whitworth. Thomas Watson (this one?) was a tenant of Whitworth under the Nevilles, but by 1615 a Thomas Watsons owned it. It subsequently passed to William Baxter, who married Thomas Watson's granddaughter, but was sold to Mark Shafto in 1652 to raise money to pay a fine imposed by the Court of Sequestration.

A Ralph Watson was married at Gateshead in 1576. However, the Brancepeth records in the Joiner database only go back to 1599, and the Whitworth records to 1754, so there may be others.

Thomas Watson was married at Brancepeth in 1618.
John Watson was married at Brancepeth in 1647.

The Pembertons

Surtees gives a pedigree of Pemberton of Aislaby in vol. 3, p. 205 and for Pemberton of ... in vol. 1, p. 237. Foster (1887) gives a pedigree of Pemberton of Aislaby on p. 251. There are discrepancies: see below.

Michael Pemberton is mentioned in John Highe's will (1587); Nicholas Pemberton is a witness of the will. Michael Pemberton is also mentioned in the will of Thomas Watson of Whitworth (1587).

Michael Pemberton (of Aislabie) (d. 1624, will proved 1638) bought Ralph Watson's land from Bayning et al. for 460 pounds in 1602 (D/Sa/D 1198). The lands were evidently transferred to William Jerrison and Thomas Gray in connection with his son John Pemberton's marriage to Isabelle Gray in 1612. This document refers to "one mansion house or capital messuage in Tuddowe". It also mentions Ann Watson, mother in law of Michael Pemberton. Ann was Ralph Watson's wife, and Michael Pemberton married their daughter Margaret (d. 1634).

Michael Pemberton is listed in the Brancepeth survey of 1629, paying a fee farm rent of 3L 13s 2d ob.

My suspicion is that Ralph Watson of Tudhoe was the son and heir of the Ralph Watson of Thorpe Thewles who was also pardoned in 1570. When the elder Ralph Watson died, his son moved to Thorpe Thewles, and his farm in Tudhoe was taken over by Michael Pemberton, who had married Ralph Watson's daughter. Michael Pemberton may have been resident in Tudhoe at this time, but probably was not, because Surtees' pedigree indicates that Michael's father Richard (of Stanhope) died in 1563. The date of Michael's acquisition of Aislaby needs checking. In any case, when Michael died, he left both Aislaby and the lands in Tudhoe to his son John. It is not clear whether John lived in Tudhoe before his father's death.

"Mr. John Pemberton of Aislabie Esq." was awarded 85 a in the east field in the 1639 enclosure award, which is the largest award in the document.

John Pemberton of Aslabie sold land to William Sidgwick in 1640.

John Pemberton died in 1642. His will has been published by the Surtees Society (vol. xxx, p. 298). It leave "all that my manor of Aislaby" to his eldest son Michael Pemberton, but also says "Whereas I have already ... to farm let unto my son John Pemberton all my lands ... in Tuddo ... for the term of one thousand years, I do hereby ratify...".

John Pemberton's second son, Captain John Pemberton, made a will in 1643 (Ettricke synopsis). Surtees suggests that this John Pemberton may be the one at the head of his pedigree of Pemberton of ..., and the Surtees Society volume on the Durham Protestations (vol. 135) states in a footnote that this is the case. However, Foster's pedigree (from Dugdale's Visitation of Durham, 1666) says that Capt. John Pemberton was buried at Leeds on 10 July 1643. I believe the latter version.

Palace Green has a will and inventory of John Pemberton, Esq. (1648).

Michael Pemberton sold a large estate (699 pounds) to Wm Sedgewick in 1647. (Ettricke synopsis).

Mr. William Sidgwick and Mr. John Sidgwick

There are two distinct lines of Sidgwicks who owned land in Tudhoe, who may or may not be related. Henry (and George?) Sidgwick were residents, but William and John Sidgwick were not. The latter are usually accorded the title "Mr." in documents.

William Sedgwick bought land from John Pemberton in 1640 (D/Sa/D 112x) and from William Pemberton in 1647; on the latter occasion he paid Pemberton 699 pounds for an estate (Ettricke synopsis). He also bought land from Ralph Fewler in 1647. The synopsis lists William Sedgewick's will of 1650.

Mr. John Sedgewick paid Kings Rent of L4:13:02 in 1662: 20s more than Michael Pemberton in 1629. This is mostly explained by the acquisition of the William/Roger Harrison land (19/9d) from Ralph Fewler.

John Sedgewick bought land from John and Ann Dunn in 1667 (Ettricke synopsis).

Several dwellings (John Atkinson, Ellinor Jackson, Thomas Pickering) are listed as "Mr Sidgwick's" in the 1667 Window Tax return.

John Sidgwick of Elvitt is listed as a Tudhoe freeholder in 1673, with much more land than Henry Sidgwick (84.0.0, even larger than Ralph Salvin).

In 1695, the seat house papers describe the Bierley land as "boundering on the lands heretofore of Mr William Sidgewick on the north".

The second set of "seat house" papers refer to "certain houses and lands at Tudhoe aforesaid belonging to Mr John Sedgewick Esq and Richard Wharton Gent".

Michael Wheatley sold land to John Sidgwick in 1672 (Ettricke).

Ralph Salvin Jr. bought the Sidgwick estate from Wm Ettricke, executor of John Sidgwick of New Elvet, in 1712.

The Awldes

Johanna Awlde is listed in Homberston's Survey of 1570 (16/6d).

There is a 1583 will of Jennet Awde of Tudhoe in Reg VI, p. 7

John Awde is mentioned in William Hodgson's will of 1598 (then living in Lanchester).

??? Awlde witnessed the sale of Henry Richardson's lands to Ralph Young et al. in 1622.

There are no Awldes listed in the Brancepeth survey of 1629.

Willm Aude took the Protestation in 1642.

The Dunns

Ralph Dunn of Ferryhill bought land from George Frevil of Hardwick in 1602 (D/Sa/D 1214 and Ettricke). There is a pedigree of Frevile of Hardwick in Dugdale's Visitation of Durham (1666). I think this is the George Freville mentioned in Sharp's "Memorials of the Rebellion in 1569" (p. 14), a gentleman of Staffordshire who undertook confidential commissions for the Earl of Sussex, President of the Council of the North. He received Hardwick from the Crown after its previous owner for attainted for his part in the Rebellion of 1569. There is an IPM for George Frevile of Walworth (12 Apr 1620) that lists lands called Hallywell in Brancepeth, held of the King, and the manors of Hardwicke, Old Parke, etc.

Raffe Dunn of Ferryhill died in 1623. His will mentions his wife Ann, sons Robert (with sons Raffe and Jerratt and daughter Allyce), Martyn (with wife Elizabeth and son John) and William (with sons Edward and Thomas). There is no mention of lands.

Radus Dunn is listed in the Brancepeth survey of 1629, paying a fee farm rent of 16s 6d.

Raphe Dunn was awarded 16.5 a in the east field in the 1639 enclosure award.

Raph Dunn took the Protestation in 1642, and is mentioned in a bond of 1649 associated with George Sparke's will.

Ralph Dunn of Tudhoe transferred land to John Dunn of Bedford, his son and heir, in 1656, for 100 pounds. John and Ann Dunn sold it to John Sidgwick in 1667 (Ettricke synopsis).

Ralph Dunn and John Dunn sold a close (Spittle Dean) to Ralph Salvin in 1667.

Ralph Dunn is listed for Hearth Tax with 5 hearths in 1664, and Ralph Dunn "and fratres" have 2 hearths in 1667. Margaret Dunn is listed as a papist in 1668. Ralph Dunn is listed as tenant of John Sparke's house in 1668-73.

The 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return lists Ralph Dunn (labourer), his wife Margaret, their sons Ralph (mason), John (butcher), George and Jerrard. Ralph and John are listed as batchelors, but George and Jerrard were presumably too young.

John Dunn (butcher?) is mentioned in the first set of "seat house" papers, occupying a shop. There are no Dunns in the 1697 Window Tax return, but Ralph Dunn reappears in 1703, apparently occupying William Byerley's former house. I suspect that this is Ralph (mason), not Ralph (labourer).

Ralph Salvin Sr.'s will, written in 1698, says "I give to my servant William Dunn (who hath been with me ever since he was a boy) seven pounds..." Will Dunn is listed as his servant in the 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return.

Ralph Dunn (II?) and John Dunn I are listed as Tudhoe papists in 1705, and were both minor freeholders in Tudhoe in 1723

George Dunn and Gerrett Dunn are also listed at Tudhoe papists in 1705.

Ralph and John Dunn are both mentioned in Bryan Salvin's trusteeship account of 1729-36: Ralph Dunn acts as "steward". But Dunn was quite a common name.

George Dunn, mason, was one of Ralph Salvin's tenants in 1729. His rent was 9/10/00 per half year.

John Dunn II (1707-1770, butcher): this is presumably the John Dunn mentioned in the 1760 land tax return, but he paid only 9/7d

John Dunn III (1741-1768-?)

The Rev. John Dunn, a native of Tudhoe, came to Tudhoe in 1725 (Coia).

"Dunn's Croft" was behind what is now Tudhoe House.

"Ratten Row", which was (part of?) John Dunn's farm in 1755, was behind the Green Tree.

The Bierleys

There is a pedigree of Byerleys of Midridge Grange in Surtees vol. 3, p. 313, but there is no evident connection with the Byerleys of Tudhoe.

Ralph Bierley is listed in Homberston's Survey of 1570, though not for a very large rent.

Rauffe Byerley died on 8 October 1573, and his will (Reg IV, 38v) was taken down by Raufe Watson and Henry Richardson his neighbours. Daughters Isabelle, Janet, Elizabeth and Agnes are mentioned. The Latin probate looks as though it also mentions a son Ralph who was the principal heir (and probably born after his death). There are two copies of the inventory, which is fairly sparse; one section is headed "in the hall and chamber", and I don't think other rooms are mentioned. The inventory does list various debts (or credits?), which might be useful in tracking down other Tudhoe residents of the period.

Ralph Bierley bought the "old seat house" from Bayning et al. in 1600, but was tenant there before that.

Robert Bierley was married at Brancepeth in 1622.

Radus Byerley is listed (first) in the Brancepeth survey of 1629, paying a fee farm rent of 19s 9d.

William Bierley was awarded 15 a in the middle field in the 1639 enclosure award.

Raphe Bierley took the Protestation in 1642.

William Bierley took the Protestation in 1642, and died probably in 1648 (Ettricke synopsis; certainly before 1674).

William Byerley bought "the over-croft" from the Jacksons in 1648.

Jerrard and Ralph Salvin bought the High Pasture from William Byerley in 1659. Byerley had bought it from John Sparke in 1648 (D/Sa/D 855, witnessed by John Dunn, Robert Hodgson (?), Stephen Cockey and Thomas Richardson. It was described in 1648 as of 18 a, adjoining on the east to a pasture close in the tenure of Jerrard Salvin, late called Thomas Highe's high pasture and on another in the tenure of William Bierley on the west.

William Bierley "the elder" paid Hearth Tax on 5 hearths "his owne and sonnes" in 1667, and was listed as a recusant in 1668. He granted a lease on parts of the seat house complex to his sons in 1674; he died before 1705.

William Bierley "the younger" was listed as a recusant in 1668. His wife was named Ann, and his brothers were Ralph, Thomas (d. 1687) and Robert.

G. Anstruther, The Seminary Priests, lists William Byerley, son of William and Ann Byerley, born in 1669. It says he was returned as a papist in 1687 with his parents in Tudhoe, in the next parish of Whitworth (SS, 180, 13). He entered VEC on 23 Nov 1698, was ordained on 23 Sept 1702 and sent to England on 26 Apr 1705.

The 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return lists William Byerley (yeoman), his wife Ann, sons Thomas and Robert, and daughters Francis, Margaret and Mary in one house;
and Robert Byerly, his wife Frances, son Charles and daughters Lucy and Mary in another, receiving the church alms.

Matthew Bierley was heir apparent of William Bierley the younger in 1696.

Wm Byerlaw was assessed for Window Tax on 10 windows in 1697, but was exempted from payment. His place on the list had been taken by Ralph Dunn in 1702.

William Byerley and "Widow Byerley and 2 children" are listed in the return for papists of 1705.

William and Robert Byerley received poor tax at some stage, perhaps after all their lands were sold? (D/Sa/E 973, not dated).

The "old seat house"

In 1696, Ralph Salvin Sr. bought "the old seat house" from William Bierley. Ralph Salvin wrote a letter (D/Sa/D 722) to his brother Anthony Salvin, of Elvet and Sunderland Bridge, asking for his help in organising the purchase of the property. The notes on the back of the letter in which he described the property he was to buy from "my neighbour Byerley" in some detail: "the best house he now lives in with stables at the south end of it; the forecourt, garden and orchard...". He also mentions "two crofts to the burn next the house and two lesser crofts to the far burn": the far burn is probably the mill stream, which places the "seat house" on the same side of the village as the Hall, probably no further south than South Farm. Ralph Salvin comments "My man can tell you how ruinous and out of repair is all about the houses...".

The documents D/Sa/D 697-733 trace the history of "the old seat house" and other lands bought by Ralph Salvin at the same time. The lands bought from Bayning et al. in 1600 seem to have passed to William Byerley, presumably Ralph Byerley's heir. Another parcel, the "Over Croft" (not including the seat house, I think) was bought by William Byerley from William and Isabel Jackson in 1648. This William Byerley died and left the property to his son, also William. In 1674, William Byerley "the elder" granted to his son Thomas Byerley butcher "all that seat house then in the tenure of the said William Byerley the elder..." [D/Sa/D 706: this needs sorting out. It was probably a 999-year lease]. The property was divided between the three younger sons, Ralph, Thomas and Robert, but Ralph Bierley "of London glover" assigned his share to Thomas in 1677 (D/Sa/D 708). In 1680, Thomas and Robert agreed on how to divide the property between them: according to a summary prepared for Ralph Salvin (D/Sa/D xxx): "Thomas should enjoy Ralph Trotter's house; the loft over the tweene doors of the old house... Robert was to enjoy the old site house (the loft over the tweene doors excepted)..." A synopsis prepared for Ralph Salvin indicates that Thomas Byerley died in 1687 and his executors assigned his interest in the property to William Byerley the younger for the remainder of the term of 999 years. However, this seems inconsistent with the entry for Thomas Byerley in the Marriage Duty Tax return of 1695 (see below). In any case, William Byerley (which one?) mortgaged the property to Robert Spearman in 1689 (D/Sa/D 704), but it is clear from Ralph Salvin's letter to his brother (D/Sa/D 722) that this was not sufficient to meet his needs. In 1696 he had to sell it, and Ralph Salvin bought the freehold from William, Ann and Matthew Byerley [which William? William Byerley "the elder" was I think still alive, though maybe by this time living in "a new house". What became of Robert Byerley? The last document in this series, D/Sa/D 733, appears to record the sale of the last part of the seat house to Gerard Salvin by Katharine Allen and Mary Reed in about 1733. This might tie in with the "Wm Allen" mentioned on the plan in the earlier seat house papers, and see also the Window Tax returns 1697-1703.

Bryan Salvin Sr.'s trusteeship accounts for Jerrard Salvin's estate (D/Sa/F41) also mention the house bought from Catherine Allen: "This house and garth is surrounded with my son's ground and houses and the street, and takes away a right of a footroad, which belonged to it, through part of my son's ground". I don't think he would have described it this way if it was part of the Hall.

There is a very interesting plan of the "fould" involved in the seat house sale. The seat house itself isn't shown. The plan refers to T Byerley, so is probably from the period 1680-87. I need to go through the documents again and try to work out the relationship between "the seat house", "Ralph Trotter's house", "the house newly built by the oxfold", "the best house he now lives in", etc. Ralph Trotter (farmer) and his wife Dorothea are listed in the 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return.

I am fairly sure that the "seat house" was on the land now occupied by Woodlands. The fee farm rents fit with this, and in 1750, John Dunn mentioned "Burns Croft that was Byerleys", and Burns Croft is definitely behind Woodlands. It also fits in well with "two crofts to the burn next the house and two lesser crofts to the far burn".

"The seat house" in Tudhoe (which is probably the same one as above) is the subject of another set of documents, D/Sa/D 967-1000: many of these contain a description along the lines of "all that seat house ... and all that orchard garden or garth thereunto belonging on the backside thereof and all that little house ... late in the possession of Mary Kirtley widow deceased and heretofore called Sparks Parlour... which said last mentioned premises bounder on the south upon certain houses and lands at Tudhoe aforesaid belonging to Mr John Sedgewick Esq and Richard Wharton Gent, on the west and north upon a house and lands late belonging to John Younger and on the east on the King's Street of Tudhoe". King's Street may be the road through the village, or (as Tony Coia suggests) the route taken by Charles I in 1633, which was probably from Durham and across the moor towards Merrington, not through the village itself. Another strand of the documents refers to closes named the High Pasture (24 acres), Little Close (3 acres) and the Moor (26 acres).

The catalogue of Salvin papers mentions Salvin-Wilson-Dunn-Tilly and Wilson-Pickering-Jones-Dunn. I am not sure that I have found all of that.

The first and largest establishment described in the 1767 list of papists is that of John Dunn, aged 60, his wife Mary (54), son John (26), daughter Mary (11), servant maid, and 2 apprentices. There are no Salvins, Byerleys, Pearsons, Corners or Yealls. John Dunn Sr. died in 1770: his 1768 will at Palace Green (probate T122) gives no description of his real estate (though it mentions a silver tankard engraved JD). However, the will does show that he was well off: it leaves everything to his wife Mary for her lifetime, then 300 pounds to each of his three daughters and the residue to his son John. Nevertheless, it appears that the old seat house was sold by his widow Mary Dunn to Anthony Tilley in 1775 (D/Sa/D 996). William Salvin bought it from Tilley in 1775 (?).

The link between the two sets of "seat house" papers is difficult to establish, especially since it may have been divided. However, the Window Tax records of 1697 and 1702 seem to indicate fairly conclusively that Ralph Dunn took over William Bierley's house between those dates. In addition, there may be a link between the "Edward Taylor and Elizabeth his wife" from whom the Dunns bought the seat house in 1699 and the "William Taylor of Tynemouth" who appears to have given William Byerley a (second?) mortgage on the seat house in or before 1695. I am not sure if anything should be read into the fact that John Dunn was a butcher, as was Thomas Bierley: perhaps Dunn took over Bierley's shop?

I am really not quite sure what the term "seat house" implies. The dictionary definition includes "manor house", but the term seems to have been used quite frequently in Tudhoe. There is even a reference (D/Sa/D 623, 1620) to "that seat house or cottage" (this needs checking to be sure that the word really is "or", not "and", but the price paid was only 17 pounds). I wonder whether "seat house" just implies stone-built.

The Sparkes

The 1492-3 manorial court roll records that "Richard Hogeson complains against Henry Swythynbank in a plea of trespass of unjust incarceration to the harm of the said complainant... whereof... he finds pledges Thomas Spare and William Yley... Christopher Cokeson and John Coll chosen on behalf of the defendant and John Rawe and Thomas Hackfurth (?) on behalf of the complainant... a penalty for the preceding offence to the lord ... 14s 10d... the complainant Richard Hogeson" (translation by Pat Mussett)

John Sparke is listed in Homberston's Survey of 1570.

John Sparkes was married at Brancepeth in 1601.

John Sparke bought land from Thomas Shortrede in 1606. These may have included some of the lands bought by Shortrede from John Harrison (D/Sa/D 804). Is there any indication that they were the Bullock lands? The Neville survey of 1607 lists William Bullock (10s) and Johannes Sparke (19/9d), but these may simply be carried over from Homberston.

Quarter Sessions 98/12: Robert Steele late of Tudhoe, co. Durham, yeo., on 28 Aug 1617 at Tudhoe attacked Nicholas Sparke of Tudhoe and struck him over the head with a wooden implement worth 2d. Steele appeared and admitted the charge. His fine was assessed at 40s, paid to the king's use sede vacante , which he paid.

Quarter Sessions 98/4: Nicholas Sparke of Tudhoe, co. Durham, yeo., on 2 Sept 1617 at Tudhoe was a common brawler.

John Sparke was a juror at the Quarter Sessions on 7 Apr 1624.

There are no Tudhoe Sparke wills at Palace Green before 1620.

George Sparke was married at Brancepeth in 1628.

John Sparke is listed in the Brancepeth survey of 1629, paying a fee farm rent of 10s. Radus Sparke is also listed, for 19s 9d.

John and George Sparke witnessed Henry Trewhitt's will in 1629.

George Sparke bought some land (part of the "labourer's land" above) from Thomas Colman in 1631 (D/Sa/D 65x).

The only "personal estates" listed for Tudhoe in the Ship Money assessment of 1636 are those of John Briggs and John Sparke, each valued at 100 pounds and taxed at 13s 4d.

John Sparke died in 1637, and his will was witnessed by Ralph Byerley, John Richardson and John Morley. He left to his son George Sparke "all that my tenement in Tudhoe with the tenement I purchased of Thomas Shortrick". He also left money to his sons George (5 pounds) and Raph (20 pounds) and to his daughters: 40 pounds to Anne, wife of Ralph Dunn, 20 pounds to Jane Curtass (?), and 40 pounds to Mary Kirtley. The will also mentions Robt Sparke servant of Raiph Dunn and Mary Foster servant of Thomas Curtass (?).

John Sparke's inventory (see above) lists a large number of people who owed him money, but not much else. There is a bond that suggests that George Sparke and Raphe Dunn were the executors of his will.

One possibility: John Sparke II (1607) has two sons, Ralph and John III. Ralph inherited his father's land (19/9d) and John III bought the tenement that had originally been Bullock's (10 s) from Shortrick. This is how matters stood in 1629. Between 1629 and 1639, Ralph left his land to John IV; in 1637, John III left his land to George.

John Sparke was awarded 10 a in the east field and 12 a in bedspeece in the 1639 enclosure award.
George Sparke was awarded 8 a in the watergate.

George, Robert and John Sparke took the Protestation in 1642.

George Sparke died in 1648/9; his executor was his widow Katherine. She must be the "Widow Spark" mentioned elsewhere, and one of the messuages is presumably Spark's Parlour.

John and Katharine Sparke signed the freeholders' agreement in 1655.

Jerrard and Ralph Salvin bought messuages and closes from the Sparke family in 1658.

John Sparke pays 6/8d King's Rent and Widdow Sparke (presumably Katherine) 2/11d in 1662.

The rates list for 1667 lists "Mr Salvin: his lands and Catherine Spark's house and croft" as a single item.

John Sparke paid tax on 1 hearth "his owne" in 1667.

John Sparke was married at Brancepeth in 1673.

Richard Willson's will (1690) mentions houses "now in the possession of Wm Bell and Widdow Sparke..."

The 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return lists Jerrard Spark (farmer), his wife Margaret and daughter Mary.
Isabell Spark also appears, receiving church alms.

Jarrard Sparke paid Window Tax in 1697-1703.

Robert Spark was a poor tenant of Ralph Salvin's in 1729 (rent 6/- per half year) and was one of those who received some of the money set aside for the poor in RS's will.

The Bullocks

William and Roger Harrison

Richard Herryson (27/2d) and William Harrison (19/9d) are listed in Homberston's survey of 1570.

On 8 Nov 1600, Bayning et al. sold to William Harrison, labourer, for 31 pounds "all those their four several cottages or tenements... now in the several tenures or occupations of the said William Harrison, John Wheatly, Raphe Wheately, Roger Wheatly and John Colman of Tuddow aforesaid laborers". The rents specified total 26s 8d, made up of John Wheatley 7s 6d, Raphe Wheatley 5s 6d, William Harrison 9s 2d, John Colman 4s 6d (D/Sa/D 652). This is evidently not the messuage that was William Harrison's in 1570, or the one that was Richard Harrison's in 1570. It must have been the Duckett tenement (because White's was sold to Robert Richardson).

Robert Richardson sold the messuage which had been William Harrison's to Roger son of William Harrison in 1601 (D/Sa/D 1188 and Ettricke synopsis).

William Herryson of Tudhoe was buried at Brancepeth on 5 June 1603.

A William Harrison died in 1605 (see above). However, it was probably not the William Harrison from 1570.

Roger Herison was married at Brancepeth in 1605.

William Herrison was listed as a recusant in 1607.

The Neville survey of 1607 lists Richardus Herryson (27s 2d) and Wille Harryson (19s 9d). It seems likely that the latter entry is simply carried over from 1570, despite the fact that Roger Harrison now owns the land.

Roger Harrison let (some of?) his land to John Currey of North Auckland, blacksmith, in 1624, and he (probably simultaneously) sublet (some of?) it to Henry Jackson of Sherburnhouse and John Willie of Tudhoe (D/Sa/D 1195) for 10 years at a rent of 10 pounds. The sublease refers to "all that his messuage or tenement ... now in the occupation of the said Roger Harrison or his assigns, except one chamber, being on the backside of the heade seate house of the said tenement, one room in the barn next to the byer???, two stalls in the byer next the barn, one broad garth on the backside of the said seat house and the croft thereunto adjoining, and one parcel of pasture ground called the Lane Close, and an acre of arable land in each of the three fields of the said Tuddo".

The land (then in the occupation of Roger Harrison) was sold to Ralph Fewler in 1628 (D/Sa/D 1191). Fewler let it to Cuthbert Glenn in 1635 (D/Sa/D 1192). Fewler sold it to William Sidgwick for 400 pounds in 1647 (D/Sa/D 1193): the sale document was witnessed by Cuthbert Glenn.

Timothy Herrison was married at Brancepeth in 1631.

There are no Tudhoe Harrison wills at Palace Green for 1620-59.

The Brancepeth survey of 1629 lists fee farm rents for John Harryson (27s 2d), Roger Harryson (19s 9d), and Margaret Harryson (9s 2d). It thus appears that John succeeded Richard and Roger succeeded William from 1570. If so, it suggests that the Harrison lands that passed through Robert Richardson's hands were those of William Harrison, which were adjacent to Richardson's own. Margaret Harrison's lands must be the ones that were bought by William Harrison from Bayning et al.

Roger Harrison sold some land to Ralph Fewler in 1628. This is probably the "William Harrison" land, and was probably sold to Wm Sidgwick in 1647.

No Harrisons took the Protestation in 1642.

In 1670, Richard and Margaret Soulby sold to Anthony Salvin one third of a messuage late in the possession of Michael Harrison, brother of Margaret Soulby. The deed (D/Sa D 838) also mentions "Jane Richardson's close". This sale may be linke to other "one third messuages" sold to Ralph Salvin in 1669-70 (D/Sa/D 913-919) and 1693 (D/Sa/D 1001-6). I haven't yet looked at either of these latter sets of documents.

Thomas Harrison was renting a large farm from Ralph Salvin in 1717. By 1729, he has been succeeded by Elizabeth Harrison, who remains there (at the same rent, L22 10s per half year) until at least 1756.

The Fewlers

Ralph Fewler bought land from Roger Harrison in 1628 and from John Willie in 1639 (Ettricke synopsis).

Mr. Ralph Fewler of Newcastle upon Tyne, gent, was awarded 19 a in the west field and 5 a in the middle field in the 1639 enclosure award.

Ralph Fewler sold land to Wm Sedgwick in 1647 (Ettricke synopsis).

Henry, Robert and Thomas Richardson

Henry Richardson was a prominent tenant in Homberston's Survey of 1570. His lease ran from several years earlier than anyone else's. His will and inventory (1579/80) are in Reg V, p. 96v-97.

Henry Richardson died in 1579. His will (28 Jan: Reg V, 96v-97) asks that his wife Isabell "be in the house with her son Robert accordingly as she and I have been". Brothers John Richardson of Marington (also with a son Robert) and Robert Richardson are mentioned. His son Robert Richardson is the executor, but "Robert Richardson my brother and Raphe Watson the bailiff to see the same fulfilled". The witnesses are Raphe Watson, William Harrison, John Richardson and John Sparke.

Henry's son Robert Richardson bought "3 several messuages" from Bayning et al. for 349 pounds on 7 Nov 1600 (D/Sa/D 621). They were previously occupied by Henry Richardson, William Harrison and William White. Robert Richardson sold White's messuage to Thomas Highe in 1605.

Robert Richardson sold some land in 1601 to Roger Harrison (Ettricke synopsis). I think this land probably passed to Ralph Fewler in 1628 and then to William Sidgwick in 1647. [This was almost certainly William Harryson's messuage, adjoining Henry Richardson's.]

Nicholas Richardson was married at Brancepeth in 1599.
Richard Richardson was married at Brancepeth in 1605.
Roger Richardson was married at Brancepeth in 1605.

John son of Robert Richesonn of Tudhoe was baptised at Brancepeth on 27 Mar 1602.

Margaret Richardson, wife of Robert Richardson, was listed as a recusant in 1607.

D/Sa/D 622 is Robert Richardson's will of 1609, witnessed by Thomas Clayton, John Horton (his mark), William Frost and Michael Fewster. The lands were divided between his sons Henry and Thomas, with Thomas holding his for a term of 21 years. Robert was evidently well off: to his daughter Agnes he left "the sum of threescore pounds in money and twenty marks of the goods of my household stuff for her preferment in marriage". Where was this will proved? It isn't listed in the card index at Palace Green.

Robert son of Henry Richeson of Tudhoe was baptised at Brancepeth on 14 Jan 1615/6.

Robert son of Henry Richardson of Tudhoe was baptised at Brancepeth on 29 Oct 1620.

William son of Robert Richardson (of Tudhoe?) married Isbell Relff at Brancepeth on 2 Oct 1618.

Henry Richardson sold "all that seat house or cottage late in the ??? of Thomas Mayson with a garth on the backside thereof ... from the kilngarth ... watergate " to William Richardson in 1620 for 17 pounds (D/Sa/D 623).
This may be the same land as D/Sa/D 628, a release (?) of 20 June, 10 James from Mary Richardson, widow and/to Thomas her son, brother of Henry Richardson, of a messuage, tenement and farmhold. The kilngarth is mentioned again, together with Yorkeshouse Pasture and Far Burn Lees.

Henry Richardson is listed in the Brancepeth survey of 1629, paying a fee farm rent of 57s 4d. Woodrington and Young (see below) are not mentioned. Will Jackson (27s 6d) is the successor of Humphrey Jackson. The date that this entry actually refers to is not clear: Michael Pemberton is also mentioned, and he died in 1624.

On 6 August 1622 (or 1621?), Henry Richardson and Mary his wife sold (or mortgaged) their remaining lands to Sir Henry Woodrington, Ralph Young and Richard Jackson for 400 (or 700?) pounds (D/Sa/D 625, which mentions lands "heretofore of Henry Richardson grandfather of the said Henry and also by Robert Richardson father of Henry"). The deed is witnessed by Jerrard Salvin, Christopher Hodgshon, Nicholas ?ehoe, George Siggeswicke (his mark), Thomas Highe, ???? ??? and ??? Awlde.

D/Sa/D 624 is an undated bond from Henry Richardson to Ralph Young, witnessed by Jarr. Salvin, Ambrose ??wnen and Thomas Highe.

D/Sa/D 632 (?) is a barely legible memorandum:
November the twenty eight Anno Domini 1621
Memorandum that I Henry Richardson of the Oulde Park do confess and acknowledge my self to be satisfied and fully paid at the hand of Sir Henry Woodrington knight and Raph Young of Sunderland and Richard Jackson of Keepyeare Grange of all such sums of money as are due or shall be due unto me the said Henry and my executors or assigns from the beginning of the world until this day in witness hereof I the said ??eif Henry Richardson / have put my hand and >>> the day and year first above written.
Hen: Richardson
Sealed signed and delivered in the presence of Jarrard Salvin, John Sparke, Martin Nicholson.

D/Sa/D 633 is a 1625 discharge (?) of Henry Richardson by Richard Jackson.

D/Sa/D 634 is an inventory dated 23 August 1628.

Mary daughter of Henry Ricardson was buried at Whitworth on 29 Oct 1629.

Young and Jackson sold the land to Jerrard Salvin in 1629 (D/Sa/D 636). (It is possible that not all the lands went to Young and Jackson: D/Sa/D 628, involving Margaret Richardson, widow, and Thomas her son, refers to the moiety of a kilngarth and other lands, message, tenement and farmfould "heretofore in the ... of Robert father of the said Thomas". In 1839, low and high kiln fields and north and south garths were at the south end of East Row.)

D/Sa/D 634 appears to be an inventory: whose?

Ralph Young was a wealthy landowner in Sunderland Bridge, and a relative of the Salvins (married to Anne, sister of Jerrard Salvin (d. 1602)). The Northern Book of Compositions for 1629-32 (Catholic Records, vol. ??, p. 355) records "Ralph Yong of Sotherne Closes, Butterby" compounding for (the annual rent of?) 2 pounds on 26 Nov 1630. Sir Henry Woodrington (Widdrington) was probably the father of Sir William Widdrington, who was an ardent royalist created Lord Widdrington by Charles I in 1643. Both Ralph Young and Henry Woodrington are mentioned in Jerrard Salvin's will of 1601. Ralph Young's will (1633) was witnessed by Jerrard Salvin, and refers to "my freehold land in Sunderland together with all houses, buildings... unto my loving nephew George Dunningham". His inventory appraisal comes to 4773 pounds, including 4649 pounds in bonds, bills etc. Among other bequests, he left "to Mr Jarrard Salvin of Croxdaile the sum of four hundred and fifty pounds; to his son Jarrard Salvin my best horse at my death; and I likewise give to Ralph Salvin one of his other sonnes, my godson, fifty pounds". There is also and Inquisition post mortem for Ralph Young, dated 16 April 1636 and listing lands and tenements in Sunderland next Croxdale.

Thomas Richardson was married at Brancepeth in 1638.

William Richardson was awarded 4 a, 3 r in the west field in the 1639 enclosure award.

William Richardson took the Protestation in 1642.

Christopher Richinson was married at Brancepeth in 1656.

Robert Wren and Ann his wife, daughter and heir of John Willie, and John Briggs and Robert Richardson, sold land to John Morland in 1663 (Ettricke). This was probably sold on to John Sidgwick in 1665. [Is this the John Morland who was buried at St. Oswald's Durham on 27 Jan 1687/8, or his son John, buried 22 Dec 1685?]

Henry Richardson, husbandman, was listed as a papist in 1668.

The 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return lists several Richardson households:

Henry Richardson, taylor, aged 60, his wife Eleanor (60) and son Thomas (taylor, 40) are listed as Tudhoe papists in 1767.

The Jacksons

Humfridus Jackson is listed in Homberston's Survey of 1570 (26/6d) and was among those listed in a group pardon in 1570.

Willm Jackson witnessed Henry Seighwick's will in 1587 snd was one of those who prepared the inventory.

William Jackson witnessed William Harrison's will of 1603.

Willius Jackson is listed in the Neville survey of 1607 with a rent of 26s 6d.

There is a IPM of 30 Oct 1613 (Portf. 183, nos. 43 and 82) for William Jackson of Tuddoe, which mentions lands and tenements in Tuddowe, held of the King. George Jackson, aged 20, is named as son and heir.

George Jackson witnessed the will of Lyonell Fetherstonhalghe of Brancepeth in 1625, and owed him money. He also witnessed the will of Henry Trewthet in 1629.

The Brancepeth survey of 1629 lists a fee farm rent for Will Jackson (27s 6d).

On 6 August 1622, Henry Richardson and Mary his wife sold/mortgaged their remaining lands to Sir Henry Woodrington, Ralph Young and Richard Jackson for 400 (or 700?) pounds (D/Sa/D 625).

Jerrard Salvin bought a messuage from Ralph Young (of Sunderland Bridge) and Richard Jackson in 1629.

Recusants' Roll 1636-7:
Tenants ... of Isabella Jackson of Tuddoe (93) owe 53s 4d p.a. ... of a cottage in Tuddoe and 4 acres a.v. 4 pounds ... in fee.
And 26s 8d ... Total 4 pounds.

93. Conv. wife of Wm. Jackson of Tuddoe 1606/7; widow 1624, ind. 1628, conv. 1632; owed 4 pounds on goods 1635.
40s of the above 4 pounds was collected by the Sheriff, 1638.

The same Isabella Jackson 100s ... goods ...

George Jackson owed John Sparke money when the latter died in 1637.

George Jackson was awarded 22 a in the middle field in the 1639 enclosure award.

Jerrard Salvin bought Broomecrook Close in Midlefeild in 1641 from George Jackson. This is probably the High and Low Broom Kirks (total 14 a 2r) on the 1839 map. Ralph Salvin also bought "Jackson's Paddock" from John Branch (who bought it from Jackson) in 1670.

There are many Jackson marriages at Brancepeth in the early 17th century, but it is a common name. There are no Richards, but marriages of grooms named Georg Jackson are listed for 1614 and 1653, and of grooms named George Jackson in 1639 and 1645.

William, George and Michael Jackson took the Protestation in 1642.

Ralph Byerley bought a parcel of land from William and Isabelle Jackson in 1648. The "over-croft" bought from them is mentioned in the seat house documents of 1695.

Henry Jackson paid tax on 1 hearth, "his owne", in 1664-70, but is not in the freeholder's list for 1673.

"Henry Jackson and Nicholas Fishburn" appear as a single entry for 10/- in the 1662 land tax return and 1/-/- in the 1667 return.

Thomas Jackson appears in the Hearth Tax returns for 1664 and 1666.

Ellinor Jackson, widdow, paid tax on 2 hearths in 1666-67, annotated "Mr Sidg cottage".

The Ileys

The 1492-3 manorial court roll records that "Richard Hogeson complains against Henry Swythynbank in a plea of trespass of unjust incarceration to the harm of the said complainant... whereof... he finds pledges Thomas Spare and William Yley... Christopher Cokeson and John Coll chosen on behalf of the defendant and John Rawe and Thomas Hackfurth (?) on behalf of the complainant... a penalty for the preceding offence to the lord ... 14s 10d... the complainant Richard Hogeson" (translation by Pat Mussett)

John Thursby sold a cottage messuage and tenement to William Iley for 6L 13s 4d in 1561 (D/Sa/D 1181). These lands seem to have been acquired by John Willie, possibly from Peter and Agnes Wright in 1617, (Ettricke synopsis). John Willie sold some land to Ralph Fewler in 1639 (D/Sa/D 1183), but some more seems to have passed to his daughter Anne: the cottage late the inheritance of William Iley was sold in 1663 by Robert Wren of Tudhoe and Anne his wife, daughter of John Willie, and Thomas Richardson, to John Morland; Morland then sold it in 1665 to (now in the tenure of Thomas Jackson) to John Sidgwick. The Wrens also sold some land to John Briggs in 1648 (D/Sa/D 1185).

Williame Iley was a free tenant in Homberston's Survey of 1570 and the survey of 1607 and 1629.

William Iley of Tudhoe was buried at Brancepeth on 4 March 1608/9.

Pardon no. 872 of 1570 includes Humphrey Iley of Branspeth, husbandman.

John Iley of Tudhoe was buried at Brancepeth on 27 March 1599/1600.

John Iley owed John Sparke money in 1637.

There is a 1638 bond for Robert Iley at Palace Green.

Geo Iley paid Hearth Tax in 1663-73.

Geo Iley, labourer, was listed as a papist in 1668.

The Wrights

John Willie bought land from Peter and Agnes Wright in 1617 (Ettricke synopsis): was this formerly William Iley's?

Edward Wright and Robert Wright; Edward Wright and Wm Wright; Thomas Wright owed John Sparke money in 1637.

James Wright rented Tudhoe Hall Farm from 1811 until after 1851.

The Willies

Ralph Willie of Houghton was included in the same pardon as William Hodgson in 1570.

John Willie bought land from Peter and Agnes Wright in 1617 (Ettricke synopsis). Was this formerly William Iley's?

Ralph Fewler bought land from John Willie in June 1639 (D/Sa/D 1183 and Ettricke synopsis). The lands were in the tenure and occupation of John Willie.

John Willie was awarded 7 a in the west field in the enclosure agreement of November 1639.

Jo Willey took the Protestation in 1642.

D/Sa/D 1185 (1648) is a sale from Robert Wren of Tudhoe and Anne Wren, daughter of John Willie to John Briggs of Tudhoe. It is witnessed by William Bierlay, Thomas Thirkell, John Sidgwick the elder, Thos. Brown, John Sidgwick, John Richardson and Thomas Foster. D/Sa/D 1186 refers to a cottage late the inheritance of William Iley.

Robert Wren and Ann his wife, daughter and heir of John Willie, and John Briggs and Robert Richardson, sold land to John Morland in 1663 (Ettricke). This was probably sold on to John Sidgwick in 1665.

The Briggs

John son of John Briggs of Tudhoe was baptised at Brancepeth on 24 June 1621.

The only "personal estates" listed for Tudhoe in the Ship Money assessment of 1636 are those of John Briggs and John Sparke, each valued at 100 pounds and taxed at 13s 4d.

John Briggs owned land in bedspeece 1639 (according to the enclosure agreement) but he was not awarded any land himself.

John Briggs was a churchwarden at Brancepeth in 1642.

Robert and Ann Wren, daughter of John Willie, sold land to John Briggs in 1648 (Ettricke).

In 1652, the sons of Thomas Trollope deceased and John Briggs sold some lands near Butcher Race to Thomas Brown (D/Sa/D 862). The owners of the neighbouring lands are given. A useful summary of the descent of the Butcher Race lands is given in D/Sa/D 885 (1737).

In 1662, William Trollop of Crosgate, gent, Katharine his wife, and John Briggs of Tuddoe sold for 92 pounds to Clement Wilkinson of Crosgate (in trust for William Wilkinson of Crosgate) twelve acres in the town fields "on the north side of the said town of Tuddoe commonly called or known by the name of Alburnes" and one acre in the town "commonly called or known by the name of Paddocks".

Robert Wren and Ann his wife, daughter and heir of John Willie, and John Briggs and Robert Richardson, sold land to John Morland in 1663 (D/Sa/D 1186 and Ettricke). This was probably sold on to John Sidgwick in 1665.

Sara Briggs paid Land Tax in 1662, but none of it was King's Rent. John Briggs was a constable for its collection.

Sarah Briggs appears in the Hearth Tax lists.
John Briggs also pays once, but is listed as a non-solvent in 1666 and 1667.

Sara Briggs paid Land Tax of 5.0 in 1667.

John Briggs, labourer, is listed as a papist in 1668.

Sarah Briggs of Tudhoe, widow is listed for 2.3.4 in the 1673 land tax return; the entry mentions Jo Briggs her heir.

The Trollops

There is a pedigree of Trollop of Crossgate in Surtees, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 93.

Thomas Trollop of the City of Durham, gent, was awarded 8 a in the middle field in 1639.

Thomas Trollop died in 1646. His will of 1644 leaves the largest share of his lands to his eldest son William, but "I give unto Anthony Trollopp my second son my tenement in Tuddoe together with the re?co? of the Collerie there to have and to hould to him and his heirs for ever." (This is my transcription, but the will has also been published by the Surtees Society: is re?co? revcon, i.e. reversion?)

In 1652, the sons of Thomas Trollope deceased and John Briggs sold some lands near Butcher Race to Thomas Brown (D/Sa/D 862). The owners of the neighbouring lands are given. A useful summary of the descent of the Butcher Race lands is given in D/Sa/D 885 (1737).

In 1662, William Trollop of Crosgate, gent, Katharine his wife, and John Briggs of Tuddoe sold for 92 pounds to Clement Wilkinson of Crosgate (in trust for William Wilkinson of Crosgate) twelve acres in the town fields "on the north side of the said town of Tuddoe commonly called or known by the name of Alburnes" and one acre in the town "commonly called or known by the name of Paddocks". The lands are described in a quitclaim dated 1665 from Clement Wilkinson to William Wilkinson (in my possession) as "to be houlden of our sovereign Lord the King out of his manor of East Grenewich in the County of Kent by fealty only in free and common sockidge [socage] and not in capite nor by Knight's service with divers other covenants at large it doth and will appear". The manor of East Greenwich had a special status, and this rather remarkable form of words seems designed to deny any obligation to provide the King with military service. It was in fact a common formula found in many of the Charters of the American colonies from this period. In 1766, when Benjamin Franklin was in London as agent for Pennsylvania and was trying to persuade Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act, his reading journal shows that he read an article entitled "On the tenure of the Manor of East Greenwich": he was then on his personal road from loyal subject of the English Crown to revolutionary and coauthor of the American Declaration of Independence (1776), and the obligations associated with such tenure were probably much on his mind.

William Trollop of Crosgate died in 1666. He must have inherited or otherwise acquired Anthony Trollop's lands, because his will is largely concerned with the Tudhoe mine: "First as touching my Freehold Colyerie at Tuddow in the parish of Branspeth in the County of Durham aforesaid now lett to Thomas Haward of Tursedale in the said County Esq my desire and will is that the same may be sold for & towards the payment of my funeral expenses debts and legacies here by me given ... and if the said Colyerie cannot be sold in convenient time then my will & pleasure is that my dear & loving wife do take & ... of the said Colyerie for three years after my decease for & towards the payment of my debts to whom I give & bequeath the same." He makes various legacies out of the profits of the colliery to be paid each year thereafter, from 1670 to 1675, but provides that "if it happen that no rent or profitt can be made of the said Colyerie that my heirs and Executrix shall not be charged with the payment...".

Surtees' pedigree gives further details of this Trollop family if they are needed.

The Lees

William Lee of East Brandon was associated with William Hodgson in various enterprises.

George Lee owed John Sparke money in 1637.

George Lee was awarded 7 and a half acres in the middle field in the 1639 enclosure award.

George Lee took the Protestation in 1642.

William Willson's lease of 1668 refer's to the Robt Lee great pasture.

Widow Richardson's name is annotated "alias Lee" in the 167? land tax (or hearth tax?) return.

John Johnson's lease of 1778 mentions Lee's Close

The Dowthwaites

John Douthwaite and Raiph Douthwaite owed John Sparke money in 1637.

Tho. Dowthwaite and Jo. Dowthwaite took the Protestation in Tudhoe in 1642. Tho. Dowthwaite is the first name listed.

Willm. and Ra. Dowthwaite took the Protestation in Brancepeth.

John Younger

The second set of "seat house" papers refer to "bounder on the west and north upon a house and lands late belonging to John Younger"

Richard Wharton

The second set of "seat house" papers refers to lands that "bounder upon the south on certain houses and lands at Tudhoe aforesaid belonging to Mr John Sedgewick Esq and Richard Wharton Gent".

There is a pedigree of Wharton of Old Park in Surtees, vol. 3, p. 300. However, the earliest mention of a Richard Wharton in it is to one baptised in 1721.

John Atkinson

John Atkinson paid tax on 2 hearths in 1664, but this is reduced to 1 in 1665, increasing again to 2 "Mr Sidgwick's" in 1667-73.

John Atkinson was married at Brancepeth in 1665.

The Hearth Tax records suggest that John Atkinson may have lived in the precursor of Tudhoe Hall until 1665.

The 1696 Marriage Duty Tax return lists Thomas Atkinson (labourer), his wife Margaret and her daughter Margaret Harper.

Thomas Atkinson was listed as a papist in 1705.

Other families

I have not yet made much use of the Parish Registers for Brancepeth and Whitworth.

Prior to 1620 or so, I haven't seen any references to families not in the list above. However, from then on there were certainly other families in Tudhoe.

Others who owed John Sparke money in 1637 are:
Mr Baxter and Michael Patterson; Richard Liddell and Stephen Egleston; Henry Berkfent (?); Xpo Dreston (?); Thomas Parking (?) and Henry Heighington; George Emerson and Jo Douthwaite; Richard Summersett; Wm Hale; Robert Midleton and Jo Wright; Richard Steadman; Thomas Richouse; Michell Norman; John Netter (?) Jun; Xpo Heandson (?); Jo Foss...; Jo Foss... Jun; John Woodhouse Jun.

Others who took the Protestation in 1642 are:
Richard Walker, Mathew Hawell, Xpofer Heuiside, Cuthbt. Rawe, Henry Beckfeild, sen., Henry Beckfeild, jun., Geo. Lilburne, Richard Steedman, Dennis Carter, Robt. Horner, Henry Foster, Tho. Foster, Robt. Corner, Willm. Readhead, jun., Jo. Willey, Rowland Corner, Tho. Ewbanke, Tho. Walker, Cuthbt. Glenn, Jo. Lackenby, Jo. Lashe, Jo. Brack, Todderick Barker, Tho. Harper, Robt. Carr, John Liddell, Michaell Norman, Willm. Bell, Ambrose Bell.

The surnames here (in alphabetical order) are: Barker, Beckfield, Bell, Brack, Carr, Carter, Corner, Ewbanke, Foster, Glenn, Harper, Hawell, Heuiside, Horner, Lackenby, Lashe, Liddell, Lilburne, Norman, Rawe, Readhead, Steedman, Walker

Names that seem worth following up (either because they appear in contexts that look important or because the families appear later on) are:
Brack, Heighington, Readhead
Bell, Corner, Glenn, Lash, Rawe.

Other relevant Salvin documents

Other things to do

Rosalyn Bass of the Manorial Documents Register mentions other documents of potential interest in the PRO at Kew:
a detailed rental of Brancepeth township 1629-31 (ref. SC 12/7/24) and an account of compositions with the tenants of Brancepeth and other lordships 1617-22 (ref. LR 2/214, ff 154-197).

Best documents to include as full transcriptions in Appendices:

Plans etc.

Wills to study:
Richard Hodgson
Michael Pemberton: who was Nicholas Pemberton?
John Pemberton the younger (1643 or 1648)

Wills to to copy:
Jerrard Salvin 1663 (Palace Green)

Wills to look for:
Sparke
Jackson
Wheatley
Colman
Duckett
White
Bullock
Byers
Speede 1607
Iley: Robert 1638 bond 114
Willie
Shortrick
Lee 1639
Nicholson 1662
Browne 1662
William Lee
William Salvin of Brandonhall (1713)

Find out when Jerrard Salvin (d. 1644) came of age. Are there any papers referring to him? Could he have lived in Tudhoe at any time? It may be worth comparing the signatures on the Henry Richardson sale documents, the 1639 enclosure award and the will of Jerrard Salvin (d. 1663).

Extra lists of freeholders:

Window Tax was actually levied until 1850 or so. The implications of the 15/- payment for 1727 should be checked. If any other records can be found, it might help us to identify the date when the "Queen Anne" room was built.

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