Models of Management

Theoretical Perspectives

I Why study models of management?

To understand a more complex reality

As a metaphor

  1. Theories can:
  2. Help to explain the past which

    In turn

    Helps one to understand the present

    And thus

    To predict the Future which leads


    More influence over future events


    Less disturbance

    Many variables impact on performance of management. Ref Boddy & Paton p.42 Handy’s chart.

  3. Metaphors

Gareth Morgan’s organisational images:


II Competing Values Framework (Boddy & Paton page 45)

Developed by Quinn to show relationship between different models and the contrasting values that lie behind them.

Four broad groups of models;

Rational Goal Models

Internal Process Models

Human Relations Models

Open Systems Models


III Rational Goal Models


Productivity / Accomplishments

Direction of Goal clarity

  1. Early history:

goes back to the Industrial revolution

Incomes were low

Price major difference

Work organisation craft approach

Division of labour. (Adam Smith pin manufacturers in Glasgow – get the point! (Babbage….. inventor of the first computer?)

From ‘outworkers’ to ‘factory groupimgs’

2. Taylor’s Perspective

American mechanical engineer. Looked at interface between the worker and the machine

Primarily concerned with worker efficiency (output)

Treated workers as ‘programmable machines’

Ideas greatly influenced organisations in the 1920s and 1930s. Tremendous process economies e.g. Car assembly time at Ford was reduced from 700 hours to 93 minutes BUT at great human cost

  1. The Gilbreth’s Perspective
  2. Promoted the development of scientific management

    Frank Gilbreth – concentrated on task efficiency

    Lillian Gilbreth – on psychological aspects of management


  3. Operational Research
  4. Originated in early 1940s in the UK War Department……..early computers e.g. Enigma Machine at Bletchley park.

    Produces models to help managers (often mathematical ones)

    Dangers – assumptions built-in to the models may become outdated quickly in times of discontinuous change


  5. Evaluation

Hales general principles (1993)

Modern day example: Bank staff



IV Internal Process Models

Stability / Control

Documentation & Information management


  1. Weber’s Perspective

The rulemaker – people expected to follow rules and not personal judgement

Six characteristics of bureaucratic management:

Weber believed that scientific management techniques and bureaucratic management were complimentary. He stressed the importance of manpower planning…. Structuring of career development

Pros & cons……………………..Good rules/Bad rules.

  1. Fayol’s Perspective

Administrative management – use of institutions and order rather than personal qualities.

Production Systems

Organisational Systems




Fayol’s 14 management principles:

Modern day example: McDonald’s



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