DCM Misc. Ch. 6484.

Ed. Feodarium p. 31, from a registered copy.

File copy of grant by B. prior and the convent of Durham to Gilbert of Billingham of 70 acres etc. in Wolviston in exchange for his land in Billingham, with warranty.

No date [c.1200: Bertram prior of Durham c.1189 - 1213]

The grant is framed in entirely normal terms, except that the warranty clause is extended to provide for the two parties warranting each other; not surprisingly at this date there is no sealing clause. Gilbert is to 'Reddendo inde nobis annuatim quinque solidos ad duos terminos. scilicet medietatem ad Rogationes. et Medietatem ad festum sancti Martini. Cum uero commune ausilium per totam terram nostram posuerimus; Prefatus G et heredes sui dabunt tantum quantum pertinet ad tantum terre [!]. In Prefata villa de Wluestun. Predictus uero .G. et heredes sui sequentur Molendinum nostrum sicut ceteri homines nostri.' [view] The requirement to use the lord's mill was commonly specified at this period, as a means of maximizing the return to the increasing number of those then making such major capital investments.

The document was prepared in a way that gives no indication that it was a draft, and was not intended to be sealed; the clearest sign of this is perhaps that as would be expected with an exchange, it was indented, with CARTA written, upside-down, across the indentations. Nonetheless it is clear that this, the priory's copy, was never sealed by Gilbert, in contrast for instance to 3.9.Spec.8, and it is evident from the considerable numbers of similar documents that they were created as a file-copies, in much the same manner as contrabrevia in the royal chancery, and hence the row of sewing-holes along the foot; examples of such files survive intact, e.g. Loc.XXVIII:3. The practice ceased early in the fourteenth century when the monks took to keeping a register of documents that they issued, and early in the fifteenth century an energetic monastic archivist arrnaged for old files to be copied up in a retrospective register, Register I.i