Durham University Geography Department

Bruce A. Scholten (PhD 2007) Honorary Research Fellow 2009-12
Mail to: South Road, Science Labs, Durham City, County Durham, DH1 3LE England, UK

Email: B.A.Scholten@durham.ac.uk and bruce.scholten@btopenworld.com

Sunderland University Visiting Lecturer 2009-11: bruce.scholten@sunderland.ac.uk
RGRG logo Editor, RGRG Newsletter (UK Rural Geography Research Group):

Submissions welcome to: bruce.scholten@btopenworld.com

New books below!

* INDIA'S WHITE REVOLUTION: Operation Flood, Food Aid and Development
Book published UK (July 2010 hardback); USA (Aug. 2010 hb); India (Sept. 2010 paperback)

by Bruce A. Scholten

How dairy leaders - answerable to cooperative farmers - used EEC food aid to assist rural development,
while passing the USA in milk output and boosting growth in the WTO era. Since 2007 millions have returned
to food poverty, but lessons can be learned by considering how cooperatives strengthened India's food security.
'Operation Flood', 1970-1996, was the world's largest dairy aid programme, but critics accused it
of luring
India to neocolonial dependence on European surpluses.

Led by Dr. Verghese Kurien, the Anand Pattern of coop dairying managed the perils of EEC food aid, according to
proper pricing policies mandated by the Jha Committee in 1984. Operation Flood improved incomes of rural farm
families and wiped out urban 'milk famines'. In 2008 the World Bank hailed the programme's success and now
promotes the Anand Pattern in Africa. A detailed understanding of India's White Revolution is useful
in the context of the developing world.

I.B.Tauris (London, UK) July 2010; Palgrave-Macmillan (USA) August 2010; Viva Books paperback (India) September 2010.
14-30% discounts on www.ibtauris.com/promotions
Hardcover: 328 pages with photos, maps & illustations. ISBN-10: 1848851766, ISBN-13: 978-1848851764.

INDIA'S WHITE REVOLUTION: Operation Flood, Food Aid and Development
REVIEWED in The Hindu (4.1m readers) May 17, 2011, by D. Narasimha Reddy,
former Professor of Economics and Dean, School of Social Sciences, University of Hyderabad.

Excerpt: 'The story of the White Revolution — which features heroes like Kurien and many villains too,
and set in Anand (Amul) and beyond (the National Dairy Development Board) — has been told in
a way that is meticulous and scholarly, what with its extensive notes and references. ... The narrative
is sometimes episodic, polemical in some places, combative in others and dramatic on occasions.'



Book published March 14, 2011. Saarbrucken, Germany: LAP Lombard Academic Publishing.
* http://www.amazon.com/FOOD-RISK-Newcastle-Firefighters-Motorcyclists/dp/3844313427/ref=sr_1_fkmr2_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1301408222&sr=1-1-fkmr2


Food & Ag Research on universal themes. PhD (2007) supervised by Prof. Peter J. Atkins:
'Consumer risk reflections on organic & local food in Seattle, with reference to Newcastle upon Tyne.'

Thanks to over 404 Academics, Firefighters, Motorcyclists & Others for completing the
UK/US FOOD & RISK SURVEY 2002-4. Your privacy is protected!
See publications below.

* Dirt: New Geographies of Cleanliness & Purity (2007) Ben Campkin & Rosie Cox (eds),
I.B.Tauris/OUP. See my chapter 15 on mad cow disease 'Dirty cows: perceptions of BSE/vCJD'.

* Sociological Perspectives of Organic Agriculture: from pioneer to policy ( 2006)
Georgina Holt & Matt Reed (eds). CABI/OUP. See my chapter 7 'UK/US Motorcyclists Survey'.

* More presentations & publications below.

Thanks to Farmer's Daughters in Snohomish County, US. Photo by Scholten (published in Dirt 2007)

Newcastle's Westgate Hill is a biking Haight-Ashbury. Food? 2 trad cafes + 1 selling vegetarian quiche.

Pilot studies asked motorcyclists if they were more attracted to local or organic food of the same
price & quality. Newcastle bikers quickly responded 'Local!', while Seattle bikers chose organic.
There may be a gap between attitudes elicited in a questionnaire and actual buying behaviour.
The full study shows 68% of Seattle & 40% of Newcastle bikers eat some organics - but
majorities of both groups choose local if it is the same price & quality as organic.

This local loyalty illustrates local patriotism (Tuan 1971) or defensive localism (Winter 2003),
which is embedded in local economies even during crises such as mad cow disease (BSE).
It explains why many consumers want as much food as possible to be local and organic.
Meanwhile, many Newcastle consumers seem to be on a continuum from a mass
industrial diet to a diet more reflective on food safety and eco-sustainability.

Seattle's Pike Place Market, est. 1907 when farmers suffered low prices.

USDA National Organic Standards (est. 2002) are a political battleground.

Columbia City market draws farmers from hundreds of miles around.

BAS Graphs & PiX: Seattle Summer 2002.

Neighbourhood market staff smile in typical rainy Seattle weather.

Presentations & Publications

Upcoming: RGS-IBG London (31.Aug.-2.Sep.2011)
'Cooperative dairy smallholders in East Africa: Appropriate tech.'

University of Nairobi, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Upper Kabate Campus, Kenya (30 May 2011).
Invited by Prof. Stephen Mbogho. My talk: 'Dairy Development in India & implications for Africa.'
With Moses Nyabila, Regional Director, East Africa Dairy Development, on EADD's 'Hub model.'

7th African Dairy Conference & Exhibition (25-27 May 2011) Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Key speaker: 'Smallholders or Megadairies? Thoughts on coops, milk gluts & recession.'

AAG Seattle (12-16 April 2011) Rural Prospects in a Globalizing World
2 sessions organized with Dr. Pratyusha Basu (Uni-So. Florida). Details of authors & titles to be posted!

RGS-IBG London (1-3.Sep. 2010): Devt in the Rural South: bio-economic crises lead to ‘new’ ag revolutions
RGRG/DARG 'sparky' session co-convened by Charles Howie (RHUL) & Bruce Scholten (Durham):

1. 'Land Grabs: Responding to the Contemporary Food/Climate/Financial Crises'
Lucy Jarosz (University of Washington, Seattle, USA)

2. 'Vietnamese farmers survive developmental revolutions: Lessons for Africa?'
Charles Howie (Royal Holloway, University of London, UK)

3. 'A role for Balochi nomads in Afghanistan's stabilisation?'
Richard Byrne (Harper-Adams University College, Shropshire, UK)

4. 'Out of India: the World Bank's rural dairy policy in Africa'
Bruce Scholten (Durham University, UK)

5. 'Agri-food networks in a new era: exploring dimensions of a new ecological
modernisation of agriculture that could 'feed the world'?
Terry Marsden (BRASS, University of Cardiff, Wales, UK.

Session abstract: Development in the Rural South: bio-economic crises lead to "new" agricultural revolutions (sponsored by DARG & RGRG). Organised by Howie & Scholten.

Abstract: A doubling of food prices, driven by rising global consumption and demand for land for biofuels have spawned major rural development initiatives in Africa and elsewhere. For example: the Rockefeller Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation are supporting the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa; and in 2008 the World Bank announced plans to create a White Revolution
in Africa, modelled on India's low-input/low-output dairy pattern. Yet, critics fear these efforts will be compromised by Northern commercial actors seeking to address their own twin problem of Peak Oil and Peak Food production with scale-fixated, high-tech strategies in the Rural South. Calls to restructure small-scale plots into large-scale commercial farms planting genetically-modified crops in order to defeat hunger run counter to claims that hunger has less to do with poor harvests than with poor distribution of what
Amartya Sen calls 'entitlements'. Indeed, studies in South East Asia show that rural well-being is as dependent on social capital as it is on technology, and these Northern interventions could ignore local conditions, local social capital and risk compromising biodiversity and ecological services. At this time, entrepreneurs and developed countries are already 'buying up' or leasing substantial areas of the Rural South in order to ensure their own future food security.

This session welcomes presentations engaging with such theoretical issues, and empirical studies from all continents on the potential role for Northern academic researchers in this "new" Rural South.

Abstracts up to 250 words are welcomed by the Convenors:

Charles Howie (RAC) c.a.howie@rhul.ac.uk; Bruce Scholten (Durham) bruce.scholten@btopenworld.com, B.A.Scholten@durham.ac.uk

6th African Dairy Conference & Exhibition, Kigali, Rwanda, (18-21.May.2010).
sponsored by ESADA (Eastern & Southern Africa Dairy Association), RDB (Rwanda Devt Board),
Ministry of Agriculture Rwanda, Land O'Lakes,
My paper: 'Out of India: Can the Anand Pattern be replicated in Africa?'

G Washington, DC (14-18.April.10) Sustainable Communities, org'd by Alison Blay-Palmer
My paper: 'India's cooperative dairying: pattern for Africa'. Beware Volcanoes!

Newcastle University Linguistics Conference (14.Jan.10)
'Spanish language islands in US agriculture?' Map poster co-presented with Dr. Martha Young-Scholten.

RGS-IBG Manchester (26-28.Aug.09): Rural South: development lessons & trends
RGRG sessions co-convened with Charles Howie (RAC), linked to DARG.
My paper: 'Dairy wars in an Indian election year'. Papers by Richard Byrne (Harper), Moya Kneafsey
et al. planned for International Journal of Ag Sustainability (IJAS) 2011 special issue with papers from
AAG09 Following the Green Revolution. Watch also for Earthscan book, Basu-Scholten (eds).

Anglo-Spanish Rural GeographyConference (29.June-3.July.09) Canterbury Christ Church University
Changing Rural Landscapes org'd by Guy Robinson. Co-presentation with Dr. Martha Young-Scholten (Newcastle):
'Spanish language & labour in US agriculture'.

'White Counter-Revolution? India's Dairy Cooperatives in a Neoliberal Era'
by Bruce A. Scholten & Pratyusha Basu (Univ. So. Florida). Human Geography 2(1): 17-28,
edited by Swapna Banerjee-Guha (Mumbai), Richard Peet (Clark) & Derek Gregory (UBC).

AAG Las Vegas (22-27.April.09) co-organised sessions + panel:
Sessions with Pratyusha Basu (Uni-So. Florida): After the Green Revolution: offshoots, ideologies.
In a superseries with World Drivers of Ag Change org'd by Geoff Wilson & Mary cooperation with Hunger sessions org'd by
Jamie Maxwell & William Moseley. Sponsored by the AAG's DARG, RGSG, and the RGS-IBG's RGRG.
I focus on 'Dairy Wars in India: neoliberalism vs. cooperatives'. Dr. Basu examines India-Africa links.
Jamie Klepek assesses GMO regulation. Sharon Meagher describes Both/And strategies in Mexican women's coops.
Asmita Bhardwaj assesses farmers' survivability in the wake of new Green Rev technologies.
Ilona Moore focuses on supranational governmentality of new agric-tech in the Global South.

Panel with Calvin Masilela (Univ. of Illinois in Penn.) Africa's Health: braindrain, disease & transport.
Sponsored by Africa Specialty Group (ASG).
My intro mentions Riders for Health's motorcycle transport in rural health (www.riders.org).

RGS-IBG London (27-29.Aug.08) Rural Geography Research Group org'd by Keith Halfacree.
USDA organic pasture war: National Organic Program finally decides a pasture rule.
Anglo-German Rural Geographers, Universitaet-Oldenburg (26-30.Juni.08) org'd by Guy Robinson & Ingo Mose.
USDA organic pasture war update with implications for the UK & Bundesrepublik.
In press 2009.
Ustinov Institute, Transdisciplinary series on Climate Change (March 2008) Howlands Farm Centre, Uni-Durham
Petrol & pasture in Climate Change.
Carbon Masterclass with Michel Callon & Donald Mackenzie (8.Nov.07) IAS, Durham, org'd by Gareth Powell.
Petrol & pasture in the US carbon picture: food & enviro-sustainability in the maize maze.
RGS-IBG Ethical Foodscapes II (28-31.Aug.07) chaired by Michael Goodman, Damian Maye & Lewis Holloway.
Production of organic pasture: Lefebvre, consumers, the USDA & farmscapes.

Brit-Can-Am rural geogs meet (15-21.July.07) Spokane, Washington hosted by EWU Prof. Dick Winchell
Borderscapes: USDA organic rules shape Washington farmscapes. Thanks for support from the
AAG rural geography specialty group (RGSG). Published May 2010.
AAG San Francisco (12-17.April.07): comparing organic urban places (COUP).
Session convened by Bruce Scholten & Melissa Schafer (Tech. Univ. Muenchen). Talking points:
*Non-Caucasians more likely than Caucasians to buy organic food in the US (Hartman 2005).
*Organic and so-called natural foods a global trend?
*How can different cities have such similar actors in alternative food networks?
*When is it useful to compare consumption in multiple sites? *What parameters are salient?
*Do you research food issues in more than one city? Email me for Call for Papers.

'Organic milk from the green hills of India to the world.' Article for new organics section
Dairy India Yearbood 2007, edited by Sharad Gupta. See: www.yearbook@vsnl.com (Book section)
RGS-IBG Rural Geography ResearchGroup (PGF 2006) chaired by Helen Moggridge & Kate Mahoney
Polytunnel Perversity & Cow Confinement: How organic rules shape UK/US farmscapes. (Talk)

'Firefighters in the UK and US: risk perceptions of local and organic food'.
Scottish Geographical Journal
(2006, vol 122, no 2), edited by Jim Hansom,
Andy Crumbers, Jo Sharp and David E. Evans.
Sociological Perspectives of Organic Agriculture: from pioneer to policy. (Holt & Reed 2006 (eds) CABI)
Chapter: “Motorcyclists in the USA and the UK: risk perceptions of local and organic food.”
Edited by Matt J. Reed & Georgina Holt, convenors of IRSA 2004 Norway working group 10 on
Post-Organic Futures. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau International (CABI). Published July 2006.
AAG Chicago (10.Mar.06) food session convened by Peter Nelson & Randall Wilson
Farmers' Market Movements in the UK and US: motorcyclists, Lefebvre & periurban farmscapes. (Paper)

Traidcraft Practitioners & Researchers, Gateshead (21.Sep.05) convened by Geoff Bockett & Ann LeMare
Handouts: (1) Food & Risk Surveys in Newcastle, UK & Seattle, US;
(2) How Seattle farmers’ markets, coop supermarkets & box schemes handle Fair Trade products from the South.
RGS-IBG London (31.Aug-2.Sep.05) 'Political & cultural economies of organic food supply
chains/alternative food networks' convened by A. Murphy, A. Trauger & M. Shermer

Organic Tower? Academics compared to Firefighters & Motorcyclists in Seattle (US) & Newcastle (UK).
AAG Denver (31.Mar.-02-Apr.05) food session convened by Rosie Cox & Laura Venn
Mad World: 404 UK/US respondents rate risk of BSE/vCJD. (Paper)
AAG Denver (31.Mar.-02-Apr.05) co-presented with Dr. Joan Qazi (WVC)
Fruits of our Labor: sustaining alternative & family farms in Washington State. (Paper)
ESRC #4 Transdisciplinary Series on Sustainability (20.Sep.04) Uni-Exeter Centre for Rural Economy
Economic sustainability of a farm near Seattle & Vancouver: Organic-industrial complex a remedy? (Poster)
RGS-IBG-IGU Glasgow (15–20.Aug.04) UK Rural Geography Research Group
Firefighters & Motorcyclists: Thinking Organic, Eating Local in Seattle (US) & Newcastle (UK). (Paper)
IRSA 2004 Uni-Trondheim (July 2004) Norway, World Congress of Rural Sociology, Organic Futures Group
Motorcyclists: Thinking Organic, Eating Local in Seattle (US) & Newcastle (UK). (CABI chapter forthcoming)
Anglo-German Geographers 2nd Meeting (3-6.July.04) University of Exeter Centre for Rural Economy
GRass Ceiling: Gendering & scale of alternative agro-food networks (AAFNs) in the UK, US & FRG? (Talk)
AAG Philadelphia (9-13.March.04) UK Rural Geography Research Group
GRass Ceiling, Pol-Econ, Deregulation & other surprises on Seattle's Organic Farm Gender Scale. (Paper)
Dept. of Food & Nutrition (07.Jan.04) University of Mahasarakham, Thailand
Dairy Concerns 2004: BSE in the US & UK. (Talk)
RGS-IBG London (3-5.Sep.03) Rural Geography Research Group
More chips for CHiPs & Seattleites than Geordies? (Talk. Paper available on Email)
Restless Ruralities RGRG (08.July.01) University of Coventry, UK
Two roads to conversion: 2 conventional dairies bifurcate into organic & conv. crops. (Talk)
RGS-IBG (03-05.Jan.02) University of Belfast, N. Ireland, UK
Forks in the road: ethnographic update on what were once 2 conventional dairy farms. (Talk)
Colloquium on Organic Research (23-25.Mar.02) University of Aberystwyth, Wales, UK
Organic-industrial complex or herbal remedy? A case near Seattle & Vancouver. (Proceedings)
Dept. of Sociology (05.May.02) University of Salford, UK
Quality, risk & trust: Perceptions of UK/US academics & motorcyclists. (Talk)
Vital Ruralities (20/21.Nov.02) University of Newcastle-on-Tyne, UK
Hitting the plate in Seattle's neighbourhood farmers markets. (Talk)
Faculty of Law & International Relations (18.Jul.01) Universidad de Tucuman
Argentina's export prospects under WTO trade liberalisation. (Keynote)
National Dairy Leaders Conference (09-11.Sep.01) Sun Valley, Idaho, USA
Shaping the cattlefield - BSE & FMD in the UK. (Bio-security plenary)
Food Policy (March 1998) Volume 32 Number 2: pages 221-222
Dairy India Yearbood 1997. Edited by P.R. Gupta. (Book review)
Africa & Globalisation (16.March.98) University of Central Lancashire (Preston)
A brief history of NGO/charity Riders for Health 1986-98. (Proceedings)

Conventional dairy farm near US-Canadian border converted to organic herbs, fruit & veg. Quality seen, smelt,
felt, negotiated. Political resistance to globalisation? Or just entrepreneurial families adding-value to survive?

*********************************** Related Interests *******************


Riders logo WWW
RIDERS for HEALTH (RfH or Riders)
An NGO/charity working with reputable organisations such as
Danida, DfID, Save the Children, WHO, to extend primary health care,
child immunisation, etc. in African countries incl. Congo, Gambia, Ghana, Mozambique,
Nigeria & Lesotho. Riders headquarters are in Pitsford, Northampton, England & Harare, Zimbabwe.

Riders Uhuru Barry Therese
MOTORCYCLES SAVE LIVES! info@riders.org and http://www.riders.org/2003/html/home.php

*US Skoll Foundation Award 2006. *Schwab Fdn. TIME mag Health Heroes on PBS-TV 2005-6.
*UK Ernst & Young Social Entrepreneurs 2006. HSBC Charity 2001: innovation & money mgt.
*Featured on BBC Lifeline Nov. 2002. *Invited, World Economic Forum, Davos 2005.
*Schwab Social Entrepreneurial Award 2005.

* 2009 Landmark partnership with Stanford University Business School & Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Http://www.riders.org/n_details.aspx?nwId=271 : 'Groundbreaking social enterprise and leading US university to show
impact of reliable transportation on reducing preventable disease in Africa. The British-founded not-for-profit organisation
Riders for Health has today [14th September] announced a landmark partnership with Stanford University’s Graduate School
of Business in a five-year project funded by The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

‘For years, Riders for Health has been an effective logistics arm, serving as the last mile for health care delivery in Africa. We are very privileged
to be partnering with them to make use of supply chain and logistics advances to scale up their operations. We are pleased that Riders’ grant
from the Gates Foundation means that we can support Riders to save lives, while at the same time pushing the research frontier on the important
subject of health delivery logistics,’ Said Hau Lee, Thoma Professor of Operations, Information and Technology at the Graduate School of Business,
and Director of the Stanford Global Supply Chain Management Forum at Stanford University'.

Contact: Andrea Coleman & Rachel Harrington UK Tel:44 (07977)226446 rfh@riders.org & rharrington@riders.org
RIDERS for HEALTH, The Drummonds, Spring Hill, Pitsford, Northampton NN6 9AA
Telephone: +44 (0)1604 889 570 Email: rfh@riders.org * UK Charity No. 1054565

Support 'Riders for Health II' in USA via Development Director Lisa Bakker: lbakker@riders.org
or Dave Preston: fanatic@cyclebarn.com Web: www.cyclebarn.com

Payroll deductions via United Way? Please specify 'Riders for Health II' mentioning headquarters:
''RfH, II, Inc.' c/o Brown & Sturm, 260 E. Jefferson Street, 2nd Floor, Rockville, Maryland, 20850 USA.'
* Verify IRS charity 501(c)(3) status via Attorney Dennis Ettlin (DMEttlin@aol.com) same address.
* http://www.guidestar.org for independent verification.

Bruce Scholten (Riders Seattle volunteer): bruce.scholten@btopenworld.com

************************************* THANKS TO *******************

THANKS! Seattle Neighborhood Farmers' Market Alliance; Lynnwood & Renton Fire Departments; Cycle Barn & WMRRA; University of Washington Geography Dept., and Linguistics Dept. Thanks for the above photo to Marilyn Roney & daughter of Farmer's Daughter farm and market sales.
In the UK thanks to APTT & Bob Groves, Marion Free and Margaret Bell; WEA & Mick Standen; DU-ITS & Gerry; M & S Motorcycles; Ken's Motorcycles; Newcastle Westgate Hill Association - esp. Margaret & Erni: www.Arabesque-Gifts.co.uk. Thanks Edward Richardson & the Salvins of Butterby Box Scheme; Andy Barton of Riverford; Durham Local Food Celebration's Lucy Smout; David Harding & Slow Food Durham-Tyne-Tees; and Amy Mycock & All at Durham Local Food Network.

CaKE: Cows and Kawasakis Eternally! Updated 29th March 2011.